by Gregory L. Little
Modern Genetic Research Confirming Cayce’s Story. This section adapted from
Mound Builders: Edgar Cayce's Forgotten Record of Ancient America by
Gregory L. Little.
DNA analysis on Native Americans began in the 1980s, but with rapid
technological improvements. research intensified in the early 1970s. Several
teams of genetics researchers at prominent American universities have been
conducting numerous studies. Although results from early studies showed the
expected Siberian-Asia ancestry of the majority of modem Native American
tribes, things took an unexpected turn in 1997. At that point it was found
that a small percentage of modem Native Americans have an unusual type of
DNA then known to exist out’, in a few locations in Europe and the Middle
East. Subsequent research indicated that the European DNA was no the result
of genetic mixing after Columbus. In addition, the same DNA was later found
in the hone of an ancient American burial confirming that people carrying
this unique DNA had entered America in ancient times.
However, in July 200,
this unique gene was also found in a small tribe living in the northern
Desert area. The DNA research initially seemed to promise solid proof of not
only where the ancient Americans came from, but also when they came. However
as might be expected, ancient DNA research has become a highly contentious
issue with several competing sides. Most of’ the DNA research on
American Indians has been done utilizing mitochondria. Every cell in our
body contains hundreds to thousands of these tiny, football-shaped
organelles. The mitochondria process glucose (sugar) into a usable form of
energy for all of our body’s functions.
The mitochondria are believed to be
an evolutional form of bacteria that adapted into a symbiotic relationship
with multi-celled life forms. Thus, the mitochondria have their own unique
DNA, which is simpler and easier to analyze than the human DNA found in the
nucleus. Mitochondrial DNA (usually abbreviated as mtDNA) is passed to
offspring only’ through the egg. Thus, it is not a combination of male and
female genes. It is a haploid gene — meaning that it has only’ one dose of
chromosomes. The haploid mitochondrial DNA shows only the female lineage of
a person. Diploid genes are two sets of combined chromosomes, the female set
coming from the egg, the male chromosomes from the sperm. Mitochondrial DNA
(mtDNA) is categorized into several types and groups termed
haplogroups. That is, there are variations in the genetic cycle of
mitochondria that fit into clusters. These clusters can trace lineage far
back into time. There are 39 different, distinct mtDNA groups into which all
humans fit and there are variations on these types.
While mtDNA analysis is not only easier than other forms of genetic testing,
it has a further advantage. All DNA mutates over time. But
mtDNA has a
fairly’ steady rate of mutation that permits a reasonably accurate estimate
of exactly’ when a particular group of people migrated from their primary
group. Thus, two important factors can be determined through analysis of
mtDNA. First, a living person (or the mtDNA from the remains of a deceased
person) can be tested to determine the specific racial group from which the
individual came. Secondly, the approximate time when that individual’s
ancestors migrated from their primary racial group can be determined.
way to view mtDNA testing is that it may be able to provide a racial family
tree extending back to the beginning of humanity. The current idea in mtDNA
analysis is that ancestory on the female side can eventually, be traced
to a genetic "Eve." The 39 types of mtDNA were
presumably derived from this Eve. Whether this idea will be completely
confirmed by research remains to be seen. However, mtDNA testing has confirmed several oral traditions passed
down through many generations in several tribes. For example, the indigenous
people of Hawaii and Polynesia have long asserted that their ancestors
frequently traveled back and forth and that they 'shared ancestor’. Genetic
testing showed that these two groups were related and confirmed the
migratory’ legends of these peoples.
Confirming the Siberian Migration
The first research on living Native American tribes showed they were
comprised of four distinct mtDNA haplogroups called A, B, C, and D. This
means that the Native Americans are derived from four different lineages.
These haplogroups were also found in native populations in Central and South
America. Utter mtDNA research utilizing ancient remains recovered in the
Americas validated these four haplogroups. Three of these haplogroups, A, C,
and D are found primarily in Siberian Asia. The B haplogroup, however, is
found only in aboriginal groups in Southeast Asia. China, Japan, Melanesia,
Confirming a South Pacific and Japanese Migration
Based on the mutations found in the mtDNA, most researchers think that
groups A, C and D, entered America from Siberia across Beringia some time
around 35.000 B.C. Group B, they assert, probably came to America from the
South Pacific or Japan via boats. It is believed the B groups began this
migration not long after the A, C, and D groups arrived. However, the
majority of the B group arrived about 11.000 B.C. This leaves open the
possibility of several migrations by the B group from different locations.
It should be noted that a few geneticists have proposed that each of these
tour haplogroups came in four separate migrations. And many Clovis
supporters argue that all the groups migrated together.
An Unknown and Unexpected Migration Group Confirmed
In 1997, a fifth mtDNA haplogroup was identified in
Native Americans. This
group, called ‘"X," is present in three percent of living
Native Americans. Haplogroup X was not then found in Asia, but was found only in Europe and
the Middle East where two to four percent of the population carry it. In
those areas, the X haplogroup has primarily been found in parts of Spain,
Bulgaria, Finland, Italy, and Israel. In July 2001, a research letter was
published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, relating that a few
people with the ‘X' type had been identified in a tribe located in extreme
These people, called the Altasians,
or Altaics, as Russian
geneticists refer to them, have always lived in the Gobi Desert area.
Archaeologists and geneticists are certain that the presence of
America is not the result of historic intermarriages. It is of ancient
origin. In addition, the 'X’ type has now been found in the ancient remains
of the Basque. Among Native American tribes, the X haplogroup has been found
in small numbers in the Yakima, Sioux, and Navaho tribes. It has been found
to a larger degree in the Ojibway, Oneota, and Nuu-Chah-Nulth tribes.
The X haplogroup has also been discovered in ancient remains in Illinois near Ohio
and a 'few’ other areas near the Great Lakes. It has not (so far) been found
in South or Central American tribes including the Maya. The X haplogroup
appears to have entered America in limited numbers perhaps as long ago as
34.000 B.C. Around 12,000 B.C. to 10.000 B.C. it appeared in much greater
numbers. It is important to note that not all Native American tribes have
been categorized by mtDNA analysis and that relatively few ancient remains
have been tested.
The Significance of mtDNA Research
The mtDNA research confirms most of’ the other new findings in archaeology.
The Americas were settled early and many different racial groups came.
Several different waves of migration probably occurred. The initial wave
seems to have occurred around 35.000 B.C. However, it may have been far
earlier since some of the recent radiocarbon dates that have emerged from
areas like California and the southwest point to 50,000 B.C. But it must be
kept in mind that mtDNA analysis is still in its infancy. Not all current
Native American tribes and very few remains have been tested.
picture the mtDNA research findings paint of ancient America is astonishing.
It may’ seem that the apparent widespread presence of the X type (from
Canada and Washington State, to Arizona, to the Plains, to the Great Lakes
area) could indicate a wide initial dispersal. However, the history of
several of these tribes tells a different 'story’. The X type in ancient
America appears to be linked to the Iroquois. This tribe, of course, was,
Cayce, partly the remnant of
Atlantean survivors from its final
destruction in 10.000 B.C. The finding of the X group in the north
Gobi-dwelling Altasians is hailed as proof that all American migrations came
from Siberia via the Bering Straits, yet it seems unlikely. With the X type
being present in the Middle East, Europe, the ancient Basques, and America,
a migration from the Gobi to all of these areas is doubtful.
The Cayce readings cite a series of large and small migrations of
to very specific parts of the world. These migrations occurred at several
times, but especially during the years approaching 10.000 B.C. One of these
places was to the Gobi in extreme southern Siberian Asia. If we assume that
haplotype X originated from Cayce’s Atlantis,
some of the X haplotype should
be found in the Gobi region— but very little of this group should be found
elsewhere in Siberia. This is what has been found.
B Haplogroup may Originate from Mu
The B haplogroup, found only in aboriginal groups in Southeast Asia, China,
Japan, Melanesia, and Polynesia, may represent Cayce’s people of Mu. Both
Chinese and Japanese archaeologists take the idea of Mu seriously, and the
B haplogroup findings closely match the story Cayce told about the continent.
Most of the people of Mu who escaped the destruction in 50,000 B.C. escaped
to China, India, and Japan. Some time later, descendants of these peoples
could have traveled to America. While
Cayce said that some people from Mu
entered the Americas about 50,000 B.C., he did not indicate that date as the
time period when the majority of them came. We only know that it was after
50,000 B.C. and prior to 28,000 B.C.
A,C,&D Haplogroups – from Siberia?
The Cayce readings do indicate that people entered the Americas from both
the east and west in 28.000 B.C. These migrants came from
and from "across the Pacific." The 28.000 B.C. date matches well with the
haplogroups A, B, C, and D proposed dates of entry into America. The
readings do have references to the Bering Straits, but Cayce did not relate
that there were migrations across it. In fact, no one ever thought to ask
him about this, so it remains an open question in the Cayce story. But the
A, C, and D haplogroups clearly originated in Siberia just as the
archaeologists have speculated. Cayce stated that the "yellow" or Mongol
race of humanity originated in the 'Gobi and gradually’ spread throughout
Asia. Thus, according to Cayce, haplogroups A, C, and D probably originated
in the Gobi and would be the migrations Cayce cited as coming from "across
The Atlantean Haplogroup may be X
Cayce indicated that the largest migration from
Atlantis occurred just
before 10.000 B.C. The majority of these Atlantean survivors went to the
Northeastern coastal areas of America and Canada becoming the Iroquois. It
should be recalled that Cayce also stated that not all of the Iroquois were Atlantean. The Atlanteans migrating to the Americas merged with the people
already present in America by that time. The Atlanteans became kaders of the
tribes. Cayce’s story’ makes it clear that the Atlanteans had serious
disputes among themselves that were reflected in ongoing violent conflict.
(This was the struggle between the Belial and Law of One groups.)
confirmed by the Iroquois’ ancient history that tells of constant battles
resulting in distant displacements of entire tribes to ensure their survival. Perhaps the most astonishing confirmation of
Cayce’s story of
ancient America is the presence of haplogroup X. What is known is that the
X haplogroup first showed up in America perhaps 34,000 years ago, but its main
entry occurred in 10,000 B.C. These dates match Cayce’s timeframe for
Atlantean migrations as well as the occurrence of X in the specific tribes
predicted by his statements. The X group also appears to have shown up in
ancient Iberia and in the Basques about the same time as well as in the
Gobi. These dates match Cayce’s story of the final two destructions of
Atlantis and the resulting migrations to these areas.