Black holes, white holes, wormholes
When astronomer Carl Sagan decided to write a science fiction novel,
he needed a fictional device that would allow his characters to
travel great distances across the Universe. He knew, of course, that
it is impossible to travel faster than light; and he also knew that
there was a common convention in science fiction that allowed
writers to use the gimmick of a shortcut through "hyperspace" as a
means around this problem. But, being a scientist, Sagan wanted
something that would seem to be more substantial than a conventional
gimmick for his story. Was there any way to dress up the mumbo-jumbo
of Sf hyperspace in a cloak of respectable sounding science? Sagan
didnít know. He isnít an expert on black holes and general
relativity -- his background specialty is planetary studies. But he
knew just the person to turn to for some advice on how to make the
obviously impossible idea of hyperspace connections through
spacetime sound a bit more scientifically plausible in his book
The man Sagan turned to for advice, in the summer of 1985, was
Thorne, at CalTech. Thorne was sufficiently intrigued to set two of
his PhD students, Michael Morris and Ulvi Yurtsever, the task of
working out some details of the physical behaviour of what the
relativists know as "wormholes". At that time, in the mid-1980s,
relativists had long been aware that the equations of the general
theory provided for the possibility of such hyperspace connections.
Indeed, Einstein himself, working at Princeton with Nathan Rosen in
the 1930s, had discovered that the equations of relativity -- Karl Schwarzschildís solution to Einsteinís equations -- actually
represent a black hole as a bridge between two regions of flat
spacetime -- an "Einstein-Rosen bridge". A black hole always has two
"ends", a property ignored by everyone except a few mathematicians
until the mid-1980s. Before Sagan set the ball rolling again, it had
seemed that such hyperspace connections had no physical significance
and could never, even in principle, be used as shortcuts to travel
from one part of the Universe to another. Morris and Yurtsever found
that this widely held belief was wrong. By starting out from the
mathematical end of the problem, they constructed a spacetime
geometry that matched Saganís requirement of a wormhole that could
be physically traversed by human beings. Then they investigated the
physics, to see if there was any way in which the known laws of
physics could conspire to produce the required geometry. To their
own surprise, and the delight of Sagan, they found that there is.
To be sure, the physical requirements seem rather contrived and
implausible. But that isnít the point. What matters is that it seems
that there is nothing in the laws of physics that forbids travel
through wormholes. The science fiction writers were right --
hyperspace connections do, at least in theory, provide a means to
travel to far distant regions of the Universe without spending
thousands of years pottering along through ordinary space at less
than the speed of light. The conclusions reached by the CalTech team
duly appeared as the scientifically accurate window dressing in Saganís novel when it was published in 1986, although few readers
can have appreciated that most of the "mumbo-jumbo" was soundly
based on the latest discoveries made by mathematical relativists.
Since then, the discovery of equations that describe physically
permissible, traversable wormholes has led to a booming cottage
industry of mathematicians investigating these strange phenomena. It
all starts with the Einstein-Rosen bridge.
The mystery of 1,000 years. Technically Time Travel
already exists. For instance, take the stars you look at every
night. They are a number of light years away, correct? YES! So, take
the star Proxima Centuri, 4.5 light years away. Let X equal the
number of years you are looking back in time, and let D equal how
many light years a star is away. With this, the equation X=D.
I have my own computation for time travel, but first there are two
components that make up this theory. In my first two years of
research, I read a lot of books on Einstein and Relativity: E=MC2.
E=MC2 is a large part of my calculation, as well as Asimovís theory
times the square root of mass divided by kinetic energy. After
spending the third and fourth year of my research I composed the
(m=mass, and k=speed u=momentum W =
force against you Y=present year T=year of arrival)
The point of this equation shows where you will end up in time.
Anyway, in the 5th year of my research I found a theory that agrees
with the Time Stream, and Big Bang-Big Crash theories. First:
For every jump through time there is an equal
action in the future and an opposite action/reaction sequence in the
past. For example, take a quarter. If you go to the future, youíll
find the same quarter from the time you came from (present), and
youíll have the same one you brought to the future. The present will
have become the past, causing the coin to disappear from the past to
the time in which you are.
If you go to the past, the future from the present remains
unchanged, but the past to the present (now future) is effected by
the coinís presence (action sequence).
What is the different between action and reaction sequence: An
action sequence is when you add, a reaction is when you subtract or
This is a sum up of 5 years of research on the subject of time
travel. I give credit to Einstein and Isaac Asimov for basing my
theory. Within the next 30 years I hope to build this portal through
time. It may come sooner than you think.
also has a discriminant. This is
called the Timimetric Discriminant Factor.
Suppose M=150, K=5, and U=750; the result
is about 169. The number that results would be labeled X cliks or in
this case 169 cliks. Cliks are the yearly terms used to measure the
time stream velocity of the jump. If the Timimetric Discriminant
Factor is positive the jump is possible, if it is negative the jump
is impossible, and if it is zero, it is still considered possible,
but calculations have to be exact. This rule will be called the
Timimetric Property. (The short form of clik is Clx)
In the first year of study I used various resources to study
Einsteinís famous Relativity. E=MC2 means that the energy output
equals the objects mass multiplied by the speed of light squared.
This played an important role in my first equation:
((2pk)+(2.44e12*k)+(c^2k))k; of course, this equation soon evolved
after I studied Asimovís 2p
Theory. This is
This soon changed
These two scientistsí theories were the
foundations for my research. Newton, as well, contributed. His Law
of Motion: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
set the standard for Schreckenbergerís Law: Equal Action in the
future, opposite action/reaction sequence in the past. It took me
into my third year to come up with the PFP Effect, a rare, and
almost unbelievable statement that says our actions are predestined.
Even if we came to a decision that involved several choices, those
choices are previously mapped out by time itself. The only way you
can find this theory to be true is if you step outside from the
The fourth year of my research was definitely focused around one
thing, mathematical equations. In the last few months my equation
jumped from something like completing the square to the Quadratic
Formula. A new effect that I termed, the Grandma Effect is something
to be considered. If I were to go back into time and marry your
dadís mom, before his dad did, then theoretically speaking your dad
wouldnít exist and neither would you. Everyone would forget your
existence. The choices you made would be eliminated and the time
stream would once again give people a destined path.
Jumping into past is more dangerous than jumping into the future. If
you go to the past then you can mess a lot of people up. That,
however, hasnít happened because we have no recollection of it. So,
until someone warps our memory in the past, we can continue to live
on the destined track.
My last theory to be discovered is the FPF Effect: It is sort of
like the PFP, except it means that someone from the future altered
the past, the time stream compensated by altering everything from
that point on. Weíd have no idea of this change, because weíd
believe the change was already in existence. Then another time
traveler finds the mistake of the altering of the past and fixes it,
setting the present and the future in its previous track. In other
words something in the future alters the past and future, but then
it is reversed. Now if the PFP Effect is true, weíll believe that
time was still predestined through all of this chaos because we will
be unaware of the changes made.
Out of all of this I find Schreckenbergerís Law and the Grandma
Effect to be true PFP and FPF work together, however, I wouldnít
count on a young person understanding what that means. The reason
why any alterations made in the past wonít disprove the PFP is
because to us the changes made would be the way life was for
hundreds or even thousands of years. I shall continue my research
and someday I hope to visit many historical areas. The question is
not where but when.
Hereís is the first section of my Timimetric Periodic Table. Mass is
in kilograms and Speed is measured in Km/h. There are many more
velocities that are listed in the full version, but it is 3 pages so
I transferred it to a spread sheet. Remember cliks are the units
used to measure the yearly velocity of a time stream jump.
Iíd like to offer you, the reader, a proposition. Study these
theories, try to confirm or disprove them. Email me at
with questions or comments. Even if these theories donít work, a
failure still advances science. Thanks, and have a nice day.
Spacelike versus Timelike
Information theory has a general rule:
Whenever you take a finite bandwidth channel and poke it into an
infinite bandwidth channel, youíll get either aliasing or
interference depending on whether you look at the communicated
information in a space-like or a time-like manner.
If you look at the information in a space-like manner, you will have
to accept the notion of non-locality (and aliasing). If you look at
the information in a time-like manner, you will have to accept the
notion of wavefunctions and wavefunction collapse (and
Aliasing or interference are manifested under non-locality or
wavefunction collapse, respectively. The general notion underlying
these phenomena is an overlap of states or non-orthogonality.
It is no wonder then that when we take a space-time-like view of the
information that we run into trouble integrating QM with Relativity
since in this case we should observe both, something like aliasing
and something like interference, together.
This is the next conceptual hurdle. How do we represent this ?
Source of Excess energy
Alexander V Frolov
St. Petersburg, Russia
The author offers for discussion an explanation for the excess
energy in cold fusion, an explanation which incorporates the concept
of negative time. The mathematical basis relies on the work of Dr.
N. Kozyrev (Russia), Dr. Nassikas (Greece), and Thomas Bearden
"The Hypothesis and The Equations of The Unified Matter Field" by
Dr. A. A. Nassikas , is a rare instance of scientific and
mathematical publication devoted to fundamental questions that leads
to a practical approach to space-time engineering. In some sense it
is a new solution for the development of free energy and gravitation
technologies. Dr. H. E. Puthoff provided an overview of the topic
based on the Casimir-effect . This was quite interesting, but the
authorís conclusion was "only in principle, yes," but the
engineering (practical applications) is "a long way off." Also that
the "warp drive" idea in the papers (1994-1997) of Dr. Miguel Alcubierre,
Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitationsphysik,
Albert-Einstein-Institute, Germany, is a fine idea, but it does not
provide any technological solution. The only author who proposed
practical approaches to vacuum engineering is Thomas E. Bearden.
Letís see what analogies there may be between Nassikasí work and the
"Gravitobiology" by T. E. Bearden to indicate the shortest practical way toward the
technologies of the future.
The Engine of Space-Time
The vacuum or íspace-time medium" of T. E. Bearden is described as
cells of so called "gravitons." Those are "the coupled
photon/anti-photon pair." Note, that it is a paired process. To make
it more clean physically, we have to introduce the negative time
axis for the "anti-photon-" So, the notion for the "virtual
particles" that is used in many papers as the unlimited sea of free
energy can be physically introduced only with the notion of
"negative time," and we must take into account the "surface of time"
or the "area of possible time directions." In this chronal area, the
pair of photon/anti-photon seems to be a balanced situation of two
processes that donít require
any energy input, but it is a situation that produces both photon
and anti-photon forms of energy. In other words, it is the "energy
creation mechanics" itself. The law of energy conservation seems to
be the law for a "direct time" and "reversed time" balanced
situation only. Certainly in our reality it is possible to detect by
means of some
measurements only half of the process, i.e. the positive time
process of the photon energy.
According to the hypothesis of Dr. A. A, Nassikas, there is no
space-time without energy since "The existence or the non-existence
of energy implies the existence or the non-existence of space-time,
and consequently of any geometry." On this point his concept is
closely connected with Beardenís "vacuum engine." Next point: by
Nassikas, the energy of positive or negative electrical charge of
the particle, i.e.. its potential field energy can be presented as
"equivalent to its internal time." So, the sign of the charge can be
defined by the "time axis direction" and the process of the electron
is some opposition to the process of the positron. Beardenís
photon/anti-photon pair is a similarly balanced situation. Note, the
mass particle here is considered as some dynamical process , that
is corresponding to some four-dimensional resonance condition,
demonstrated in calculations for the DNA-molecule and for other
natural material elements.
A practical solution was proposed by Thomas Bearden to create
"the local rate of flow of time" that is "determined by the "local
time-stress of vacuum potential" is to apply some non-linear
materials for translation of energy between different frequencies
and harmonics of electromagnetic waves. Normally, i.e. in the
ordinary time-flow situation, the non-linear material produce the
harmonics from a fundamental wave. But Bearden says that "in
a true time-reversed situation, non-linear materials can exhibit the
production of a stronger fundamental from a combination of the
fundamental and its harmonics." The principle that is designated by
Bearden as "Stokesí
principle of time reversibility" (G.G.Stokes (Camb. DubI, Math. J.
4. 1849, p.l) is interesting, but we have to discuss something
beyond this that is connected with the potential form of energy,
i.e. with Beardenís "stress of vacuum."
Dr. A. A. Nassikas and Dr. Miguel Alcubierre independently proposed
to use the difference in local rate of the time flow as the source
for a propulsion force. According to Nassikas, if "the space under
the object attracts the object" more or less than the upper one in
strength of the different relative times around the object,
gravitational Propulsion can be achieved. So, all we need to take
the next step from theory to technology is to find a way to change
the rate of time. Is it too difficult? No, it is quite simple if we
take into account some points:
a) The notion "time" in any case is connected with some certain
material system, for example, with some elementary particle or with
some planetary system. The different velocity of light in different
materials is a demonstration of this connection.
b) The "space" of some curvature (of some rate of time) is a
bi-directional or many-directional energy process. Electricity is
one of many possible balanced situations that is described as a
bi-directional or two-polarity case. For many-polarity energetic
situations there is the possibility of three or more time-flow
c) There is no difference in principle between an atom and the space
around that atom, according to Faraday . So, the balanced chronal
situation of the vacuum engine corresponds to some real properties
of matter and we can work with matter to reach the changes in the
balance of the vacuum engine in the area of this material
The vacuum is the medium of some known physical properties, for
example, the dielectrical permittivity. Physically, it is connected
with the velocity of spreading of the photon, and since we can work
with different materials of known properties, it means we have the
possibility of changing the parameters of the vacuum engine itself.
One quite old example of a practical application is USA Patent
number 3,187,206, granted in 1959 to Thomas T. Brown. The gradient
of dielectrical permittivity is proposed and experimentally proved
as the source of reactionless force. It is necessary to note that
the same reactionless force is created at the border between two
different dielectrical materials of the electrical capacitor, as it
is described in many textbooks on the properties of dielectrical
materials. The problem of taking the next step to fundamental
conclusions is understanding the physical connection between the
permittivity of a material, the velocity of light in the material,
and the local rate of time for
this area of space.
The patents by Thomas T. Brown include also asymmetrical interaction
between electrodes. i.e, the topology of the electrical field. Letís
note the analogy between Nassikasí idea above on "energy and
geometry of space" and the invention by Brown of reactionless
propulsion. The gradient of the electrical potential that is created
the natural way with distance from the electrically charged particle
is a demonstration of the natural topology of space, i.e. the
electrical field is created according to the law of creation of
space itself. It is the reason for the analogy between the
formulation for electrical and gravitational interaction. We have
the possibility of changing the
topology of the electrical field, for example by means of the
asymmetrical dielectrical member in the capacitor of Brown. So we
have the possibility of compensating the natural gradient created by
the properties of space. It is the way to space-time engineering.
So, the conception by Dr. Nassikas and idea of Dr. Alcubierre are a
fine theoretical basis for the technology that was discovered and
proved in practice by Thomas T. Brown. Modern industry, specialized
in dielectrical materials, is ready now for cheap mass production of
warp drive systems. The same technology may be the basis for self
rotating generators. The way is short and all we need is the
commercial demand and engineering formulation of a step-by-step
The concept of negative time by Dr. Nassikas can be useful also in
understanding the over-unity effect that is demonstrated in some
cold fusion cells. The well-known Pons-Fleischmann experimental
set-up includes a cathode that is over-saturated by protons when the
set-up is operating. So, the local concentration of positively
charged protons can be considered as a local imbalance in vacuum
engine and the local rate of time in this area is different from the
normal one. The processes are produced by this local change of the
curvature of space are multilevel complex energy exchange, but the
source of over-unity is the local concentration of positive
electrically charged protons that is due to the lnput power source.
Letís consider this point more carefully.
Any electrically charged particle can be presented as some volume of
space i.e. the gravitational space by Nassikas, G-space of energy
Eg, that is joined with some imaginary electromagnetic space of
energy Eem. Conservation of energy is presented as:
dEem + dEg =O F.1
In my view, it is useful to change equation El to the form:
dEem = - dEg E2
In this case it is obviously that mathematically the space of Eem
has an "imaginary" value, since the energy and the velocity are
connected by the quadratic root of the negative number.
The over-unity output in cold fusion systems means the production of
the excess heat energy. Certainly, some cold fusion systems
demonstrate power output as the result of nuclear transmutation
processes. But if we are considering the water to be distilled H2O
in which fusion does not occur, I have to suppose only one way for
excess heat production:
dEem >O if dEg<O E3.
I must note that the idea is not a new one since the famous Russian
astrophysicist N.A. Kozyrev created in 1947-1980 the "conception for
active properties of the time." There is some natural physical
mechanism for production of heat energy that is demonstrated by any
star and it is not the thermonuclear reaction but the
transformation of energy by the mechanism of Kozyrev. In that
concept, the kind of energy that is used by the star for heat energy
production is the "time flow." On the other hand, we can take into
consideration the gravitational description of space instead of its
chronal description, and the production of the heat is the
Eg that we noted above.
N.Kozyrev analyzed the wide experimental astrophysical data to find
the answer for the question of the common "special condition of
matter" inside any star to provide the transformation of energy Eg
into energy Eem. His conclusion  is quite simple:
B/n = 6 eV F.4
where "B" is the density of the beam energy of the star and "n" is
the density of electrons in the volume of space.
We certainly cannot create the conditions of stellar matter in the
laboratory, but for a Pd-cathode in a cold fusion cell, the
situation is quite similar to Kozyrevís equation F.4 and heat
production can be detected as result of F.3. The difference is the
application of protons instead of electrons. To calculate this we
have to use the
volume density of protons H+ in the material of the cathode instead
of the volumetrical density of electrons "n" in star matter.
1. "The Hypothesis and The Equations of The Unified Matter Field" by
Dr A.A.Nassikas, Infinite Energy, March-June 1997, p. 120-124
2. "Can the vacuum be engineered for space flight applications?
Overview of theory and experiments," Dr. H.E. Puthoff. Infinite
Energy, July-November, 1997.
3. "The Concept of Mass Process," Alexander V. Frolov, Proceedings
of International Scientific Conference "New Ideas in Natural
Sciences," June 1996, St. Petersburg,
Russia, Published by "Pik" Ltd.. 1996.
4. Letter from M. Faraday to R.Teilor of June 25, 1844, published in
Journal of Russian Physical Thought, N2, 1991, p. 81.
5. N.A. Kozyrev, Selected works, published by Leningrad State
University, 1991, p.202, in Russian.
Closed Timelike Curve (CTC) Construct
Scale Model prototype
Thomas G Skeggs
The main aim of this CTC Construct, scale model prototype is to test
a hypothetical design (I discovered by accident), for a device or
construct to generate closed timelike curves. The CTC Construct is a
scale model prototype for a full-sized manned prototype, known as
the Flight Test Article (FTA):
Defiance. The FTA: Defiance is an
12ft by 12ft by 6ft, prototype Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aerosplace vehicle, which has taken nearly six years to design. The
design for the CTC Construct and FTA Defiance, was largely inspired
by the work carried by Thomas Townsend Brown and
Nikola Tesla. I
have combined their work with quantum theory and the principles of
electrostatics and tribo-electrification, to product a vehicle,
unlike any other, (See figure one).
I originally planned to begin construction on the
FTA in the summer
of 2001. But this date maybe put back until the winter of 2001, due
to numerous construction problems.
It would be almost impossible for anyone to build a time machine, as
it would require an extremely powerful energy source to drive it.
But there maybe a more energy efficient way to travel through time,
by building a device or construct to use a natural time machine like
a quantum or astrological phenomenon, in the form of a worm hole or
The CTC Construct model consists of two triangular shaped pyramids
one placed on top of the other, with a smaller pyramid placed on top
to create an apex above the modelís centre of gravity. (see figure
2). The model is 2ft by 2ft by 1ft. The frame is made out of balsa
wood, and has 3 coats of polyurethane varnish, plus 3 coats of high
temperature heat resistant paint to protect the balsa wood frame
The CTC Construct has a specially designed skin, which acts like a
capacitor and it is capable of holding a strong electrostatic
charge. The skin consists of a metallic-dielectric sandwich. The
inner layer is charged positive and the outer layer charged
negative, with the dielectric sandwiched between the two metallic
layers. The inner and outer layers consists of several coats of
nickel electroconductive paint which has a surface resistivity of
0.7 ohms per sq cm. The dielectric layer consists of polyurethane
varnish, with a dielectric constant (k) of 2.5-2.6.
The skinís unique configuration maybe able to overcome the average
weak energy condition, to produce tiny amounts of exotic matter,
enough to create a same and observable antigravitic effect. The
design for this skin configuration is based on the Casimir effect.
And on the work carried out by Thomas Townsend Brown.
I have been working on a hypothesis that if you build a construct
with a high electrically charged skin, then the space-time within
the CTC Construct will move at a slower speed, than the space-time
surrounding it. This hypothesis is explained in a paper I have
written called the Tempus Codex. ( This paper is still being written
and will be ready at the end of December, or the beginning of
January 2001, I have also recently discovered on the Time Travel
website, that a Russian scientist, Vadim Chernobrov from the
Moscowís Aviation Institute, has also been conducting tests on a
model similar to my design. Mr Chernobrov also believes that a
device with an electromagnetic skin can create an time dilation to
occur within the device).
The skin is energized by the modelís Main Propulsion System (MPS).
The MPS works in unison with the electroconductive skin, and uses
the principle of tribo-electrification. This is where friction can
generate and electrical charge. The MPS uses a oxygen and/or
hydrogen gas mixture, ionised in a small chamber and is blown
upwards through a pipe, where ions hit the inner surface of the
electroconductive skin. (The MPS uses a 15Kv transformer to ionise
the gas mixture). This results in an very high electrostatic charge
building up on the electroconductive skin, due to the friction from
the flow of millions of ions. Not only does this
MPS/electroconductive skin configuration produce a high
electrostatic charge. This configuration may also produce thrust.
When the ions strike the inner surface of the skin, they produce
kinetic energy. This kinetic energy is focused downwards by the
pyramid shape, and the kinetic energy radiates along the skinís
surface travelling downwards resulting in a small thrust.
The MPS is positioned inside the CTC Construct, at the centre of
gravity. A pipe connects the MPS to the inside of the hollow apex,
located in the top of the construct. Located around the apex are
3-1.5mm holes, where ionised gas is allowed to escape. This ionised
gas reacts with the surrounding air molecules and gives them an
electrical charge. The air molecules are then repelled by the
electroconductive skin, and this results in a boundary layer to form
around the CTC Construct. This process results in a reduction in
drag. This process is known as, "plasma magic", (See New Scientist
Magazine. 28th Oct2000).
Due to the small size of the model, not all the necessary systems
can fit inside it. So a special jig has been made for the model to
sit on during testing. In the centre of the jig, is a small plastic
pipe with three inlet pipes. Hydrogen and oxygen gas is produced by
a home-made electrolysis cell. The hydrogen/oxygen mixture is blown
into the MPS, by using a 12 volt air pump.
Inside the top pyramid forms a hollow apex. Inside the hollow apex
are 3 small plastic pipe connectors. These connectors are joined by
silicone tubes to the Reaction Control & Stabiliser System (RCSS).
Ionised gas from the hollow apex is forced down the silicone tubes
by pressure within the apex, into the RCSS. The RCSS consists of 3
round pipe sections, fixed to 3 thrust chambers to create an RCSS
assembly. Each RCSS assembly are placed in a triangular pattern with
the CTC construct and are located at each tip of the model. Ionised
gas is forced under pressure into the round pipe sections, where the
gas mixture is given an additional high voltage charge. The ionised
gas are accelerated out of the RCSS assemblies to produce thrust.
Each RCSS assembly will be powered by a 5Kv Cockcroft-Walton
The CTC Construct is simple in design, but complex to manufacture.
The CTC Construct, Scale Model Prototype has taken 4 months to build
so far. And it may require another month of work before it is ready
for testing. Due to a small risk of fire caused by the mixing of
hydrogen with oxygen. Numerous safety features, equipment and
procedures are being added, and this may delay testing until early
The CTC Construct consists of the following unique design features:
The CTC construct has a unique double triangular
The CTC skinís configuration maybe able to overcome the average weak
energy condition, to produce tiny amounts of exotic matter, enough
to create an antigravitic effect. The design for this skin
configuration is based on the Casimir effect. And on the work
carried out by Thomas Townsend Brown.
The CTC Construct skin configuration maybe able to overcome the
average weak energy condition. The space-time within the CTC
Construct will move at a slower speed, than the space-time
The CTC may generate an antigravitic effect, plus drag reduction.
This means small ion motors can be used for directional control.
Resulting in a massive saving in weight and mass by not having to
install large and heavy standard aircraft engines or rocket motors.
The Main Propulsion System/skin configuration uses
tribo-electrification, to generate a very high electrostatic charge.
This MPS/skin configuration acts just like a
Van de Graaff
The CTC construct has a unique propellantless fuel system. It uses
atomspheric air as a propellent when in the earthís atmosphere and
hydrogen when in space. Hydrogen is also used during take-off to
generate more thrust.
The FTA will have a unique water-based propellant. Water is
converted into hydrogen and oxygen, the hydrogen is used as fuel for
the ion/plasma generator, and on the full size prototype the oxygen
is used to maintain life support.
The water-based fuel system does away with large and bulky cryogenic
fuel tanks resulting in a greater payload capability and large
savings in weight.
The CTC construct has a drag reduction skin to reduce friction and
wave drag, in a process known as, "Plasma Magic".
Due to the lack of
ailerons, rudders, and flaps this offers a
considerable savings in weight and can dramatically reduce drag.
The unique shape of the CTC construct, makes it ideal for taking off
and landing vertically.
Views of Time Travel
TIME....it has always fascinated the whole world throughout ages. If
we think of time as a phenomenon and consider that it always happens
then well we are thinking short. We are not looking at the wonders
that will happen if we are able to control time. A century or two
ago no-one would have imagined that we could defeat Nature anytime
but as we all are witness to the technological developments and also
the medicines that are being developed have virtually dominated
Nature. Here we should be wise enough to know that we are not trying
to stop the functioning of Nature, but we are trying to configure
the Nature for its optimal use. In the same way, just like Nature if
we are able to control Time then it would be just like mending Time
for its optimal use. Here we should note that we are in no position
to stop Time from working, but we can definitely control Time. Time
is relative...and all the terms of Time-Travel are w.r.t. you and
the rest of the universe.
Albert Einstein has proved mathematically that speed of light is
fundamental. His theory of relativity is partly based on the basic
assumption that the only term that is constant throughout the
universe is the speed of Light.
And everything including time is relative and not constant. So, he
said Time-Travel is quite possible.
He also proved these two formulae :
M = mass of body moving at
T = time for the person moving at íVí Velocity.
t, m = time and mass of stationary body.
So, it is quite obvious from the above two formulae that as the
speed at which any object is traveling increases its mass also
increases and for that body the time slows down. Then what happens
when V = C, well when V=C then denominator become zero and Time
becomes infinite. The physical conclusion that can be derived is
that at the speed of light the time-loops come to a Halt. And so at
speed of light we can Time-Travel.
You will understand this better after reading this example:
Imagine yourself traveling at half the speed of light. So, according
to the formula of time given above ...the denominator of the above
equation changes and so value of time at íVí speed increases than
the value of time at zero speed. Well, what do I mean by "value" of
Value of time means the amount of time. So, when you are traveling
at half the speed of light for you, your clock shows correctly
...ie.60sec=1min. But, that one minute of yours may be one or more
than one hour for the person who is at zero speed. Well, it means
you have traveled through "Time".
Well, as we know the formulae proved by Einstein it is obvious that
the Time loops come to a halt and we can travel through Time if we
are traveling at speed of light. But our bodyís mass also reaches to
infinity at that high speed.
Here the RED ring like structure is time and the rod shown is our
world and the Time is moving continuously (neglect the window).
It can be imagined that the time as an infinite cycle of collection
of events and these events are PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE. Which events
are Past, Present & Future are relative to a particular person and
the when this frame of reference changes we can say that we that
person has traveled through Time. These events are occurring in
cyclic order which can be imagined with the help of figure shown
above. And these cycles are moving at particular speed and this
speed is equal to the speed of light. When we travel at the speed of
light then with respect to these Time-loops, we come to a halt
[relative to those red Time rings] and now at speed of light we are
free to travel through the Time or through the collection of events.
When at speed of light we can surely travel through various events. BUT...nothing would be happening at that time for everything
moves with Time and now Time itself has stopped. So, the events
would stop happening and it would be a stage where all objects will
be in stand-still position!
And when we travel at speed more than that of light we can travel
towards past. The cylinder shown above is only for one Dimension and
such cylinder are present for various other Dimensions and so we can
say there exist more than one universe. This is the basis of the
theory of Parallel universe.
Now the question remains is that "What is present between those
And "What if we (by some means) are able to make ourselves free from
Well, there is nothing present between these Time-Dimensions. And if
we are able to make ourselves free from these Time-Loops then we can
travel not-only through our Past, Present & Future but also through
various other Dimensions. And that would be the beginning of the
phase in which we actually be aliens in ďOther WorldĒ!
But, it is practically impossible for anyone to travel at the speed
of light. So, we can definitely draw an obvious conclusion that for
traveling through Time or in other words to travel at the speed of
light, there should be some kind of process through which we can
convert our material body into energy (electromagnetic waves) so
that these waves can travel through time.
And the reverse process
would bring back the person who would have traveled through time.
Also, we know that every living organism has its peculiar DNA and
that the DNA structure is having its own unique pattern of genes.
Now, we know that any two material particles are having some
potential difference between them. So, every two genes would be
having some potential difference whose value is unique for those two
genes. So, a unique pattern of voltages (of very small value) can be
developed for each living animal. And when we convert those
potential differences into a band of electromagnetic waves.....with
the frequencies of each wave corresponds to the particular voltage
...so we can generate a unique pattern (band) of electromagnetic
waves which will be unique to each living animal. And these waves
can be sent through Time. And replica of Electromagnetic waves
pattern can be generated.
So, we can send a person (wave pattern) through Time and that person
can exist simultaneously at different places.
This particular way of possibility is solely my idea....and I accept
there may be some flaws with this theory but I know this is one of
the ways in which a particular living organismís replica can be sent
through Time barrier. I would love to receive feed back from you
people on this.
Conjectured Solutions to creating Closed Timelike Curves
Thomas G Skeggs
It would be almost impossible for anyone to build or construct a
time machine. Dr Michio Kaku, professor of theoretical physics at
City University of New York, believes time travel could be achieved,
but the energy required would far exceed any energy source on earth.
The technology would have to be advanced and powerful enough to
manipulate energies on the scale of a star. (1)
So any realistic time travelling design would use a quantum or
astrological phenomenon like worm holes or quantum singularities,
which would act like natural time machines. For anyone to design a
device capable of creating closed timelike curves, (time travel into
the past) would need to design and build a practical device which is
capable of holding worm holes open long enough, so a device can
safely pass through it. The device would be like making a key to fit
a lock, or cryptanalysis trying to crack an unbreakable code. This
is why I have called this short paper the íTempus Codexí.
Exotic Material & the Casimir Effect
Contrary to popular believe, exotic material is not a copy of Playboy
magazine!. It is a cunning way to hold open a worm hole and this
idea was dreamt up by Physicist Kip Thorne and his colleagues at the
California Institute of Technology. Thorne was approached by
astronomer and writer Carl Sagan, who was writing a novel called
"Contact", about a extra-terrestrial species sending the human race
a message. (2)
Thorne came up with an idea of using a Schwarzchild wormhole, which
exist naturally in the universe, but are extremely small. Even to
small for particles to travel through. Schwarzchild wormholes also
have a very brief lifespan, opening and closing before anything can
enter the worm hole. But Thorne came up with a ingenious way of
opening a Schwarzchild wormhole, and he decided to use a form of
anti gravity, produced by a substance called exotic material to line
the worm hole, and hold it open so someone can pass through a worm
hole safely. But can enough exotic material be produced to hold open
a worm hole?. (3)
This maybe possible. Dutch Physicist, Hendrik Casimir, carried out
some experiments in the 1950s and it later became known as the
"Casimir Effect". (4) The Casimir experiment involved placing two
metal plates a few millionths of a metre apart, within a vacuum. An
electrical charge was then applied to the two plates. The two plates
were then pulled together, due to the presence of íexotic materialí
. This strange effect occurs due to the nature of space being made
up of vacuum fluctuations, where pairs of matter and anti-matter
particles continuously appear and disappear to create a boiling sea
of virtual particles. Outside these two plates, particles which move
in a wave like motion are allowed to exist in larger numbers, but
between these plates, there are fewer vaccum fluctuations and only
certain wave particles are aloud to exist, as many particles or
waves are just to large to fit within the space between the plates.
So this means there are less particles or waves bouncing around
between the plates, than outside them. And so the pressure between
the plates is lower than outside. Remembering that the plates are in
a vacuum, this means what lies between the plates must have less
than zero energy, or has negative energy. This is known as the
negative energy density and repels mass instead of attracting it.
The main disadvantage with creating exotic material by using the
Casimir effect is it would require a great deal of energy.
Under certain conditions, particles may interact with vacuum
fluctuations to create exotic material in free space. These certain
conditions could be explained by a theory originally designed to
explain the evaporation of black holes. (A black hole is created
when a star collapses into a singularity, where the density and
curvature of space time are infinite). One clue to achieving time
travel, may lie within black holes.
Black Holes & Relativity
The world famous Cosmologist Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of
Mathematics at Cambridge University developed a theory explaining
why black holes have entropy and emit radiation. Over several years
Stephen Hawking discovered that virtual particles that make up
vacuum fluctuations are broken apart by the intense gravitational
field presence at the surface of the black hole, known as event
horizon. Particles with a negative charge are pulled into the black
hole and creates a negative energy density. And the particles with a
positive charge are emitted. This emission of virtual particles from
black holes has become known as Hawking Radiation. (6) So not only
black holes consume the mass of a collapsing star. Black holes
destroy the very fabric of space itself, by pulling apart the vacuum
But how can this process be replicated, and the energy needed to
produce large worm holes or black holes for a machine would require
a very powerful energy source. Not only that it would extremely
dangerous, and science has ruled out using black holes as a safe
means of transport of travelling through space or time. But instead
of producing black holes or trying to hold open a very large worm
holes with exotic material, there maybe a more energy efficient way
of achieving the same effects without creating black holes, or having
to produce enormous amounts of exotic matter.
Whatís needed is way to reproduce the effects of a black hole,
without having to create one. Another clue to producing a practical
time travel may lie within Einsteinís theory of general relativity.
l came across some basic descriptions of the Einstein effect. Which
stated that the presence of mass can bend space time. The Einstein
effect describes how a rotating planetary bodies like our planet or
star can drag space time around with it, creating a lensing effect.
The mass of an object bends spacetime. Gravity being curved space.
The key to success in producing a practical method of time travel,
may lie within quantum gravity. But the drawback with quantum
gravity, is that scientific descriptions of quantum gravity are
plagued with infinities. So to fill this void of uncertainty
regarding the true nature and function of quantum gravity, I had to
improvise, and use Einsteinís theory of relativity as a starting
I decided to use electrons in my design, as they are lightless of
mass particles and easy to accelerate. If an electron is accelerated
towards velocities reaching 99% of the speed of light, the mass of
the electron will increase dramatically and the electron will also
shrink in size. An electron moving at 99% of the speed of light has
7 times as much mass as when it is at rest (7), and the mass of an
electron moving at 99.99% of the speed of light will increase by 70
times its rest mass. (8)
So if an electron were accelerated to
the speed of light, the electron would hit you with the impact of a
Mack truck traveling at 60 miles per hour. (9)
General Relativity explains why this happens. The mass of a moving
object depends on its speed v. And can be explained with the
y is the Lorentz factor equal to 1/H(1-v2/c2). c is the speed of
light. m0 is the rest mass as measured by an observer who is at rest
relative to the object. So the energy of an object E, and its mass
are related by the equation. E=mc2. (10)
The increase in mass with speed can be calculated with the equation:
So the mass of an object increases with its speed y in accordance
with the equation m=y m0. (12)
So when an electron is accelerated towards the speed of light, its
mass will increase and the electron will also shrink in volume. This
is known as the Lorentz factor and can be worked out using the
If you could accelerate the Statue of Liberty to 0.999 times the
speed of light. The statue which stands 151 feet tall would appear
to shrink down to 6.8 ft. (13)
Also when you accelerate an electron, the gravitational mass
increases. This increase in gravitational mass of the electron will
cause the spacetime surrounding the electron to curve more. Just
like in Einsteinís theory of relativity, which predicted the
Einstein or lensing effects. Which states gravity is curved space,
caused by the presence of mass.
This gravitational distortion which curves spacetime around the
electron maybe explained with the equation:
M is mass. h is Planckís constant and c is the speed of light. (See
This gravitational distortion produced by high velocity electrons
would generate a gravitational time dilation effect. And like in the
Casimir experiment where you have two metal plates and you apply an
very high voltage to the plates. Electrons would flow at velocities
approaching the speed of light and create a small gravitational
effect. And with the plates being a few millionths of a meter apart,
this would create a negative energy density, due to the low number
of vacuum fluctuations between the plates. This results in
gravitational field which is repulsive instead of being attractive.
So if we used a 3-dimensional shape such as a hollow cube or sphere,
where the walls of the object was made of a pair of metal plates,
then the spacetime within this hollow centre would become more
probabilistic, due to an increase in entropy.
Through the Looking Glass
Actually making the space within the construct more probabilistic is
the key to successful time travel. The answer exists in the complex
nature of the vacuum fluctuations, which can exist in a
superposition of quantum states. This condition allows for particles
both mass and virtual to exist simultaneously in any number of
One basic example to explain the super position of quantum states is
that all particles can act as particles or as waveforms. But the
super position of quantum states means that they can exist as a
mixture of the two states. The particles exist as probabilities.
When particles are observed this causes the super position of
quantum states to collapse into a single state. So in most
situations the observed particles act as either as a particle or as
wave, or under certain conditions a combination of the two states!.
The complex and mind boggling nature of the super position of
quantum states, puzzled Hugh Everett at Princeton University to
develop a theory known as the "Many Worlds Interpretation". Everett
was puzzled by the collapse of the wave function when a observation
is made. So he decided it made sense to treat each outcome of every
possible quantum event as existing in a real world. (14) This means
if a particle was observed to act as a particle in one world, the
same particle would act as a wave function in another. So this means
there are a infinite number of probabilities that exist as
alternative realities and covers all possible eventualities, past,
present and future.
In an article featured in the August 2000 edition of Scientific
American. Three researchers have been working on the composition and
function of the universe. And they believe the universe may consist
of a membrane folded up into a cylinder. And other parallel
universes may also exist as membranes or D-branes, folded up into
this cylinder, and are less than a millimeter apart. They have also
formed the opinion that one of the few forces that can travel from
one parallel universe to another, is gravity. (See Figure 1) (15)
Its important to point out here that some
D-branes may have reversed
symmetry, and this may result in particles in some other parallel
D-branes to have reversed parity. This may mean that the dimensions
within these D-branes could be upside down or back to front. Such
reversed symmetry may also result in the emission of gravitinos. So
if a graviton was fired into past, it would arrive in future in
another parallel D-brane.
If their idea is correct then the double split experiment has more
meaning. As the electrons are fired through the slits, they are
travelling at very high speeds. And general relativity tells use
when an electron is accelerated towards the speed of light, its mass
will increase. As the mass of electron increases so does the
gravitational mass increase. This increase in gravitational mass of
the electron causes the emission of stronger gravitons which can
penetrate into other parallel universes and effect the outcome of
the double split experiment in another parallel universe. Or the
electrons emitted in another parallel universe can emit gravitons or
gravitinos which effect the outcome of the double slit experiment
within our universe. Causing more interferance.
Constructing a Time Travel Device
To create a device to travel back in time, we require a device where
itís interior becomes more isolated from our universe, or to produce
its own locality, and to achieve this requires a construct to have a
skin that produces a powerful field which no light or radiation can
penetrate with the exception of gravity. The construct may consist of
a hollow sphere, or box. I have used the Casimir effect as a
starting point to develop a double layed metallic skin for the model
construct. The original skin design consisted of two metal skins,
separated by very thin cavities. (See Figure 2).
loosely based on the Casimir experiment and also tries to
mimics the configuration of a black hole, where the skins act as an
artificial event horizon. Due to the interior space of the construct
being cut-off from the surrounding universe, objects or events
within construct can act in strange ways. The gravitons being
emitted from the skin of the construct would make non-local
connections with other particles making up the constructís interior
in other parallel worlds.
So this effects the probability of where the constructís interior is
within space and time, as the interior generates its own locality
and connects to other parallel universes. The minimum result is a
time dilation effect. A highly efficient, well engineered construct
may have the ability to create Closed Timelike Curves and travel in
the past. The 3 dimensions of space may become fuzzy, caused by the
emission of gravitons effecting the 4th dimension of time.
The only way I can describe my design, is that its similar to the TARDIS, which appeared in the BBC TV Sci-fi series,"Dr Who".
is an acronym for Time And Relative Dimension In Space, where itís
interior has infinite size, greater than its exterior. The construct
is similar. Itís not like a conventional vehicle. Its power source
does not physically propel it through space and time. The negative
energy density and quantum gravity present within its skin, breaks
the connection by warping space and time with the exterior locality,
so the interior can create its own time and generate non-local
connections with other parallel universes, or moments in time. Its a
crude and basic form of teleportation.
Russian scientist, Vadim Chernobrov from the Moscowís Aviation
Institute, has been working on a prototype design known as the Space
Transportation System. Chernobrovís prototype is based on the
experimental work carried out by Professor N.A Kozyrev of also of the
Moscow Aviation Institute, who carried out work in to the properties
of time. Professorís Kozyrev conclusion of his experimental work, is
if you can create a device that changes the density of space, this
will effect the rate or density of time. Causing time within the
device to slow down or speed up. Chernobrov constructed a prototype
made up of electromagnetic layers which fit inside each other like a
Russian doll. The difference in time can be worked using the simple
tE is the standard Earth time and t is the local time within the
Stephen Hawkingís Chronology Protection Conjecture, provides a major
problem in any design for a device capable of time travel. As his
conjecture claims that any device would be destroyed by the vacuum
fluctuations, where warped space-time would turn the virtual
particles into almost real mass particles, increasing the density of
the virtual particles, and reducing the probabilities of other
histories existing in the device. But it maybe these vacuum
fluctuations which provide the extra energy to time travel. As an
increase in density within the skin of the device would also cause
an increase in the entropy within the interior of the device. So
the number of probabilities would be low in the skin, but would be
high in the interior of the device.
Into the Abyss: Travelling back in time
Itís claimed that its impossible to travel to a time earlier than
the worm hole first became a time machine. So if a worm hole was
created in August 2001, you could not travel back in time to June
2001. The laws of general relativity are unequivocal. (17) But with
a better understanding of the universe, being made up of parallel
universes (D-branes) there maybe a way to bend the laws of physics
slightly, and thus allowing someone to travel safely back into the
For example, if you want to travel back in time to Roswell, New
Mexico in July 1947, to investigate the alleged UFO crash that
occur there. As the time traveller enters the device, they start to
imagine being in Roswell, New Mexico in 1947. As the time traveller
thinks of this, a connection has already formed in Roswell, New
Mexico in 1947, and connects up to the one the time traveller is
about to enter. Its important to point out here, when such
connections form, the laws of general relativity and causality begin
to breakdown within it. The laws of physics suggest that the
connection in our present (2001 AD) was created first, but due to the
bizarre twist in the nature of time, its means the other connection
in 1947 was opened first, some 54 years ago.
Some may claim, from an observer point of view in 2001AD, this is a
violation in casualty, but the connection in 1947 is some 54 years
old and it has been expanding into hyperspace ever since, until it
meets up and connects to the one created in 2001AD.
So when the time traveller enters the device and its switched on,
the time traveller will travel backwards in time. Thus generating a
time-like curve. It will be the thoughts of the time traveller that
connect up the two time periods of 1947 and 2001.
But what about observers from 1947 onwards to 2001?. Would they see
the connection forming. The answer is no, as the connection in 1947
onwards would be invisible to the naked eye. So no observers would
report seeing it. The only time an observer may see the connection
is during a process I have nick-named called, "Convergence". This is
when two points of the connection link up to create a non-local
connection between two different time periods, so the time traveller
can travel back and forth in time.
There are two major drawbacks with this technique. The first is the
connection maybe non-transverable. As the time traveller would
require the device to travel from the past into the future and
appear back in the year 2001. Only what's in the interior of the
device travels through time. The device will remain stationary and
fixed to its own universe.
The second drawback is some may claim it would be impossible for a
time traveller to simply wish themselves into another time period,
using the construct. But it could be possible. As the interior will
become sensitive to conscious thoughts. If nothing can penetrate
the skin of the construct, such as light, sound and electromagnetic
radiation. Then nothing can escape out into the surrounding local
spacetime. Not even the conscious thoughts of the time traveller.
The thoughts of the traveller would exist in the construct as
probabilities and would simply be focused elsewhere, in this case,
July 1947, Roswell, New Mexico.
But there will be limits, and according to quantum physicist, David Deutch from Oxford University. Time travellers could find themselves
in any number of alternate realities or alternate histories. Time
travellers could find themselves in a reality where the Nazis won
the Second World War, or in a alternate reality where Elvis lives
on. But probability rules over imagination. So time travellers will
not encounter realities where pigs can fly, or discover real
vampires biting the necks of lusty young virgins.
Albert Einstein once stated that ,"Imagination is more important
than knowledge". The hypothetical problems of time travel maybe
solved one day by the verification of superstring or M-theory, but
the technology needed to make time travel a reality will be
developed, by using good old fashioned imagination, ingenuity and
For I dipt into the future, far as the eye could see,
saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be.
by Alfred Lord Tennyson
This equation is based on Schwarzchildís radius, which is used to
calculate the critical point when a curvature of space is so strong,
no mass could escape its gravity and would be compressed down into a
singularity. I have just changed the gravitational constant with
Planckís constant, as the gravitational constant was to large to
measure the effect of the gravitational distortion created by a mass
particle. This equation can also be used on any other mass particle.
Trying to explain how the construct works, has been difficult, so
here is a summary on how it works:
The construct l have designed uses a process to generate a negative
energy density within the walls of the device. This reduces the
direct connection with the surrounding spacetime.
The interior of construct it produces itís own local time.
The presence of a negative energy within the walls of the construct
makes interior more probabilistic and sensitive to conscious
Other past or future moments in time will exist as probabilities
within the interior of the construct. Thinking of a past moment will
cause that probability to become higher than the present time.
This paper is an edited version of the original as it takes me a
great deal of effort to produce a paper on such a complex subject
such as time travel, as I have no academic qualifications
whatsoever. This would explain my poor spelling and grammar.
Recently I have made a grave mistake with the CTC Construct Scale
Model Prototype. In a bid to keep costs to an absolute minimum, I
tried to combine the ideas of the Tempus Codex into prototype
aerospace vehicle l have been also developing. I now realize this
idea was to ambitious. But Iím having to abandon all research on
time travel until the Spring 2002, due to other commitments.
The Fabric of Reality by David Deutsch. A good book which covers
subjects such as time travel, quantum computing, virtual reality,
Black Holes and Time Warps: Einsteinís Outrageous Legacy by Kip
S.Thorne. This book is classic, and anyone with an intrest in black
holes, worm holes and time travel, should have a copy of this book.
Time: A Travellerís Guide by Clifford A. Pickover. This is a book
for anyone with an intrest in time travel. Includes detailed
information for the novice time traveller, plus a few computer
In Search of Schrodingerís Cat: Quantum Phyics and Reality by John
Gribbin. This book is a great introduction into the complex subject
of quantum physics. This book also details the history of quantum
physics, and the scientists who discovered it.
Timeline by Michael Crichton. This is a fictional book, but a great
story. This book is about a team of archaeologists sent back into
14th century France. This book maybe made into a film one day.
Contact by Carl Sagan. This is also a fictional book and a film that
explores the idea of recieving a message from an extra-terrestrial
species. If you want to see a how a CTC Construct may work, then see
01. The Physics of Star Trek. L.M.Krauss. Flamingo Books. 1997.
02. p. Q is For Quantum: Particle Physics From A to Z. John Gribbin.
03. About Time: Einsteinís Unfinished Revolution. Paul Davis.Penguin
04. p. Q is For Quantum: Particle Physics From A to Z. John Gribbin.
05. Public Lectures: Space and Time Warps. S. W. Hawkin.
06. p.136. Introducing Stephen Hawking. J.P.McEvoy & O.Zarate. Icon
07. p.273 Q is For Quantum: Particle Physics From A to Z. John Gribbin. Phoenix. 1998.
08. p.28. Einstein-A beginnerís Guide. J. Breithaupt. Hodder &
09. p.32. Time: A Travellerís Guide. C.A.Pickover. Oxford University
10. p.28. Einstein-A beginnerís Guide. J. Breithaupt. Hodder &
11. p.28. Einstein-A beginnerís Guide. J. Breithaupt. Hodder &
12. p.28. Einstein-A beginnerís Guide. J. Breithaupt. Hodder &
13. p.17. Time: A Travellerís Guide. C.A.Pickover. Oxford University
14. p.271. Q is For Quantum: Particle Physics From A to Z. John Gribbin. Phoenix. 1998.
15. p.48-55. The Universeís Unseen Dimensions. N.Arkani-Hamed, S.
Dimopoulos & G.Dvali. Scientific American. August 2000.
16. Experiments on the change of the direction and rate of time
motion. V.A.Chernobrov. 1996.
17. p.504. Black Holes & Time Warps, K.S. Thorne. Papermac. 1995.