by Wal Thornhill
’The most merciful thing in the world ... is the inability of the
human mind to correlate all its contents... The sciences, each
straining in its own direction, have hitherto harmed us little; but
someday the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up
such terrifying vistas of reality... That we shall either go mad
from the revelation or flee from the deadly light into the peace and
safety of a new dark age.’
- H. P. Lovecraft
In a broadly
interdisciplinary inquiry such as this, communication itself can
pose quite a challenge. Typically, the greatest difficulties in
communication will occur when one is questioning something already "known"
to be true. On matters of underlying principle, the confidence
behind established ideas can be so high that discussion itself may
seem quite senseless. This difficulty is aggravated by fragmentation
of the process by which information is gathered and evaluated. The
specialization of intellectual inquiry carries with it certain risks
when assumptions within one discipline rest upon prior assumptions
in other disciplines. No one can be an expert on everything, and
when considering possibilities outside one’s personal expertise, it
is only natural to defer to what specialists in other studies claim
to know. But what are the consequences of this when theoretical
suppositions, though perceived as fact, cannot account for
compelling new fields of data’
Given the extreme fragmentation of established science today it is
difficult to imagine that the enterprise as a whole could ever
"correlate all its contents." Yet extraordinary strides toward that
"someday" envisioned by Lovecraft may now be possible through a new
approach - one in which electrical phenomena receive the full
attention they deserve, and all appropriate fields of evidence are
included. To some, the prospects may appear every bit as disturbing
as Lovecraft imagined. But for those who instinctively seek out
unifying principles, the new horizons will be at once breathtaking
This introduction will present a new "deep focus lens" for viewing
the physical universe, from sub-atomic particles to galactic realms
unknown before the Hubble telescope. The Electric Universe
holistic answer to myopia
* - that narrowing of vision which naturally
accompanies the fragmentation of knowledge and learning. For those
with the courage to see clearly, the required "unlearning" of
fashionable ideas carries no real cost whatsoever. The terror Lovecraft envisioned is only the first rush of uncertainty, when
ideas long taken for granted are thrown into question by facts and
simple reasoning previously ignored. The "piecing together of
dissociated knowledge" will only require us to confront the deep
contradictions in things experts have long claimed to know. With the
courage to see clearly, the adventure itself could well be "the most
merciful thing in the world," adding new insights into the greatest
dramas of early human history and vital perspective to humanity’s
situation in the cosmos. Lovecraft did not realize that the
"terrifying vistas" are but a mirage seen through an open door. The
truth is always unified, and as such it can only be friendly to
those who seek the truth first. As we pass through the door, it is
not fear that goes with us, but the exhilaration of discovery.
Myopia - a disinclination to acknowledge the existence of
The Electric Universe model is a coherent "Big Picture" of our
situation in the universe, spanning many disciplines. It highlights
repeated electrical patterns at all scales that enable laboratory
experiments to explain the strange, energetic events seen, for
example, in deep space, on the Sun, and on Jupiter’s moon,
Electric Universe works backward in time using observations rather
than forward from some idealized theoretical beginning. It provides
simple answers to problems that are now clothed in fashionable
metaphysics and mysticism. It is more interdisciplinary and
inclusive of information than any prior cosmology. It points to
practical possibilities far beyond the limits set by current
Electric Universe model grew out of a broad interdisciplinary
approach to science. It is not a technique taught in universities.
The Electric Universe is based more on observations and
than abstract theory. It recognizes connections between diverse
disciplines. It concludes that the crucial requirement for
understanding the universe is to take fully into account the basic
electrical nature of atoms and their interactions. Strangely, this
is not the case in conventional cosmology where weaker magnetism and
the infinitely weaker force of gravity rule the cosmos. Such a
simplification may suit a theoretical physics based on electrical
neutrality of matter in Earthly laboratories but it does not apply
in space where plasma dominates.
Plasma has been called the "fourth state"
of matter, after solids,
liquids and gases. Most of the matter in the universe is in the form
of plasma. A plasma is formed if some of the negatively charged
electrons are separated from their host atoms in a gas, leaving the
atoms with a positive charge. The negatively charged electrons, and
the positively charged atoms (known as positive ions) are then free
to move separately under the influence of an applied voltage or
magnetic field. Their net movement constitutes an electrical
current. So, one of the more important properties of a plasma is
that it can conduct electrical current. It does so by forming
current filaments that follow magnetic field lines. Filamentary
patterns are ubiquitous in the cosmos.
3. A Little
"To be sure, nature distributes her gifts unevenly among her
children. But there are plenty of the well-endowed, thank God, and I
am firmly convinced that most of them live quiet, unobtrusive
- Albert Einstein
The pieces of the Electric Universe "Big Picture" are supplied by
some remarkable individuals, most of them unknown and who have lived
or are living "quiet, unobtrusive lives" away from universities. For
those with a sense of history this fact should serve to increase
curiosity rather than dull it. Most revolutions in science have come
from people who taught themselves outside the academic system and
were not constrained by the fallacies and fashions of the day. It
has been well documented that modern institutions of science operate
in such a way as to enforce conformity and prevent research and
publication of revolutionary ideas. J. R. Saul argues that medieval
scholasticism was re-established during the 20th century. If so, the
new "Enlightenment" will have to come, as before, from
me, enlightenment began with the controversial polymath and author
of Worlds in Collision,
Immanuel Velikovsky. In 1950
he demonstrated an interdisciplinary, comparative technique for
uncovering hard evidence of planetary catastrophe from the recorded
memories of the earliest civilizations. His method was forensic in
that he looked for reports of physical events of a highly unusual
nature that were nonetheless corroborated globally by totally
separate cultures. Then by applying scientific knowledge of cause
and effect, it was possible to build a very detailed model of the
sequence of those events. Finally, the model enabled specific
predictions to be made and confirmed - a requirement of a good
scientific theory. Some of the predictions he made were outrageous
at the time: Venus would be near incandescently hot,
emit radio noise, the Moon rocks would be magnetized, and so on.
Velikovsky was right, astronomers of the day were wrong. However,
you will not find any textbook that gives him credit because his
theory was judged to be wrong. Presumably they were all lucky
It became clear to Velikovsky that Newton’s concept of gravity was
insufficient to explain the reported behaviour of the planets. And
it certainly could not answer the obvious question, "why do the
skies look so peaceful now’" This allowed a dogmatic response by
academia to Velikovsky’s seminal breakthrough. It was said his
theory didn’t obey Newton’s laws. But what did Newton know of
electricity? And if anyone believes that Newton’s laws guarantee a
stable planetary system - think again! Any gravitational system with
more than two orbiting bodies is unstable. Yet the question is
hardly ever asked, let alone answered, "what produces the observed
stability of the solar system’" Velikovsky was convinced that the
clue lay in his discovery that electrical forces dominate the
incredibly weak force of gravity at times of planetary close
encounters. Although he was unable to explain at the time how this
would create the observed stability of the solar system, with his
uncanny prescience he had pointed the way to the Electric Universe.
then skeptical scholars have shown Velikovsky’s historical
perspective of cataclysmic events to be wrong. However, his basic
premise of planetary encounters has been confirmed and the details
fleshed out to an extraordinary degree. Several pioneering
researchers in this new field now agree that awe-inspiring planetary
encounters did occur in pre-history. To the most ancient
civilizations they were a culturally defining memory. They were the
inspiration for pyramids, megaliths, statues, totems and sacred rock
art. The survivors of global upheaval felt it imperative that the
memory be preserved and passed down faithfully to future generations
in the expectation that the "gods" would return. The memorialization
took the form of architecture, ritual and story to re-enact the
apocalyptic power of the planetary gods over human destiny.
Such a catastrophic
beginning explains why civilization appeared like a thunderclap out
of nowhere. Unfortunately, with no reference points in the present
behavior of the planets, the stories lost their real meaning. This
short explanation may seem contrived until the wealth of supporting
evidence can be presented. However, it highlights the crucial
distinction between the planetary catastrophism of the Electric
Universe and that of neo-catastrophists who attempt to explain the
evidence for planetary encounters in terms of cometary phenomena.
Modern comets simply do not fit the descriptions from the past. Nor
can they account for abundant evidence of fresh looking planetary cratering and scarring. Besides, in an
Electric Universe comets are
not the apocalyptic threat to the Earth imaginatively portrayed by
artists. Such pictures are entirely fanciful because a comet would
be disrupted electrically by a cosmic thunderbolt before it hit the
Earth. The only visible evidence remaining would be an electric arc
crater like Meteor Crater in Arizona.
The Electric Universe model grew from the realization that a new
plasma cosmology and an understanding of electrical phenomena in
space could illuminate the new work being done in comparative
mythology. In return the images of events witnessed in the
prehistoric sky and their sequence could help unravel the recent
history of the Earth, Mars and Venus. By accepting data over a far
wider span of knowledge and human existence than conventional
cosmology allows, the Electric Universe model began to provide
pragmatic and common sense answers to many questions that seem
unrelated. It followed the entreaty of the Nobel Prize winning
plasma physicist and cosmologist,
Hannes Alfvén to work backwards in
time from observations rather than forward from some idealized
have to learn again that science without contact with
experiments is an enterprise which is likely to go completely
astray into imaginary conjecture."
- Evolution of the Solar
System, NASA 1976,
H. Alfvén & G, Arrhenius, p. 257.
The result is now a "Big
Picture" that emphasizes our dramatic prehistory and essential
connectedness to the universe. No longer do we have to look at
ourselves and the universe through the distorting sideshow mirrors
of modern science.
The implications of electrical activity between planets will be
profoundly disturbing for those who have built their cosmology
around the weak force of gravity, acting in an electrically sterile
universe. This strange, dogmatic oversight guarantees that nothing
will remain in future of the fanciful Big Bang theory or the
simplistic story of the formation of the solar system.
4. What Big
Big Bang is already dead! The unheralded "Galileo of the 20th
Halton Arp, has proven that the universe is not expanding.
The Big Bang theory is based on a misinterpretation of redshift. The
redshift of a distant galaxy is measured in the light coming from
that galaxy. Lines in the spectrum of that galaxy show a shift
toward the red compared with the same lines from our Sun. Arp
discovered that high and low redshift objects are sometimes
connected by a bridge or jet of matter. So redshift cannot be a
measure of distance. Most of the redshift is intrinsic to the
object. But there is more: Arp found that the intrinsic redshift of
a quasar or galaxy took discrete values, which decreased with
distance from a central active galaxy. In Arp’s new view of the
cosmos, active galaxies "give birth" to high redshift quasars and
companion galaxies. Redshift becomes a measure of the
of nearby quasars and galaxies, not their distance. As a quasar or
galaxy ages, the redshift decreases in discrete steps, or quanta.
The huge puzzle for astrophysicists is why a galaxy should exhibit
an atomic phenomenon. So we turn to particle physics. This
difficulty highlights the fact that quantum "mechanics" applied to
atoms is a theory without physical reality. The weirdness of quantum
theory has been attributed to the subatomic scale to which it
applies. But now that we have quantum effects in something the size
of a galaxy, this convenient nonsense is exposed. If Arp is right
many experts are going to look very silly. His discovery sounded the
alarm in some halls of Academe and since nobody likes a loud noise -
particularly if they are asleep - the knee-jerk response was to
attack the guy with his finger on the alarm button. Arp’s telescope
time was denied, papers rejected, and he was forced to leave the US
to pursue his work.
For more than 10 years plasma physicists have had an electrical
model of galaxies. It works with real-world physics. The model is
able to successfully account for the observed shapes and dynamics of
galaxies without recourse to invisible dark matter and central black
holes. It explains simply the powerful electric jets seen issuing
along the spin axis from the cores of active galaxies. Recent
results from mapping the magnetic field of a spiral galaxy confirm
the electric model.
On the other hand,
cosmologists cannot explain why spiral shapes are so common and they
have only ad-hoc explanations for galactic magnetic fields. More
recently, inter-galactic magnetic fields have been discovered which
is the final straw to break the camel’s back. Incredible
gravitational models involving invisible "black holes"
have had to
be invented in a desperate attempt to explain how the attractive
force of gravity can result in matter being ejected in a narrow jet
at relativistic speeds.
Why do we accept such
science fiction as fact when an Electric Universe predicts spiral
shapes, magnetic fields and jets? The cosmic magnetic fields simply
delineate the electric currents that create, move and light the
Plasma physicists argue that stars are formed by an electromagnetic
"pinch" effect on widely dispersed gas and dust. The "pinch" is
created by the magnetic force between parallel current filaments
that are part of the huge electric currents flowing inside a galaxy.
It is far more effective than gravity in concentrating matter and,
unlike gravity, it can remove excess angular momentum that tends to
prevent collapse. Stars will form like beads on a wire until gravity
takes over. The late Ralph
an engineer from Flagstaff, Arizona, in the 1970’s took the next
mental leap to suggest that the electrical input doesn’t stop there
and that stars are not thermonuclear engines! This is obvious when
the Sun is looked at from an electrical discharge perspective. The
galactic currents that create the stars persist to power them.
Stars behave as
electrodes in a galactic glow discharge. Bright stars like our Sun
are great concentrated balls of lightning! The matter inside stars
becomes positively charged as electrons drift toward the surface.
The resulting internal electrostatic forces prevent stars from
collapsing gravitationally and occasionally cause them to "give
birth" by electrical fissioning to form companion stars and gas
giant planets. Sudden brightening, or a nova outburst marks such an
event. That elucidates why stars commonly have partners and why most
of the giant planets so far detected closely orbit their parent
star. Stellar evolution theory and the age of stars is an elaborate
fiction. The appearance of a star is determined largely by its
electrical environment and can change suddenly. Plasma physicists
and electrical engineers are best able to recognize plasma discharge
phenomena. Stellar physics is in the wrong hands.
Earth-like planets and moons are similarly "born" by electrical
expulsion of part of the positively charged cores of dwarf stars and
gas giants. That explains the dichotomy between the dense rocky
planets and moons and the gaseous giant planets. In the Electric
Universe model, gravity itself is simply an electrostatic dipolar
force. So planetary orbits are stabilized against gravitational
chaos by exchange of electric charge through their plasma tails
(Venus is still doing so strongly, judging by its "cometary"
magnetotail, and it has the most circular orbit of any planet) and
consequent modification of the gravity of each body. Planets will
quickly assume orbits that ensure the least electrical interaction.
Impacts between large bodies are avoided and capture rendered more
probable by exchange of electric charge between them. Capture of our
Moon becomes the only option, it cannot have been created from the
Earth. Evidence of past planetary instabilities is written large on
the surfaces of all solid bodies in the solar system. That evidence
is in the form of electric arc cratering.
discharges between closely approaching bodies takes the form of
"thunderbolts of the gods", or distinctively shaped
helical plasmoids. Such plasmoids were sculpted by many ancient cultures
when depicting Jupiter hurling his thunderbolt.
Jupiter’s thunderbolt raises questions about the history of mankind
and the Earth that have never before been asked. When it comes to
dating planetary surfaces, plasmoids cause characteristic electrical
arc scarring in the form of sinuous channels and neatly circular
craters with steep walls and occasional central peaks. Such
are universally misinterpreted as impact craters. The sinuous
channels are wrongly classified as riverbeds or lava channels.
Minutes or hours of electrical scarring can produce a surface like
that of the Moon, which is later interpreted in ad hoc fashion to be
billions of years old. Hemispheric differences in cratering are
expected in this model. And for the skeptics, subdued electric arc
machining of a planet-sized body continues to this day on Jupiter’s
innermost moon, Io. See the
successful predictions about the discoveries that would be made as
close-up images of Io became available.
Planetary geologists are
not trained to recognize electric arc scarring otherwise they would
have seen at a glance the characteristic cathodic surface erosion
and cathode jets on Io. They are definitely not volcanos as we know
them from geology textbooks.
people are unaware that we have no understanding of how lightning is
created in clouds. The simplest answer is that lightning is not
generated there at all. Clouds merely form a convenient path to
Earth for electricity originating in space. Without clouds it is
possible to have a "bolt from the blue". That is happening on
(although the sky certainly isn’t blue). Weather systems are driven
primarily by external electrical influences.
Consequently the Sun has weather patterns. And the most distant
planet, Neptune, has the most violent winds in the solar system
though it receives very little energy from the Sun. Electric
discharges from space cause Mars’ huge dust devils and
dust storms. They are responsible for Jupiter’s Great Red Spot and
the "spokes" in Saturn’s rings. It is why
Venus has lightning in its
smog-like clouds and its mountain-tops glow with St. Elmo’s fire. It
is why the Earth has lightning stretching into space in the form of
"red sprites" and "blue jets", and why tethered satellites "blow a
However, nobody is trained to consider electrical energy input to
The image on the right is NASA artist’s view of lightning on
during the descent of one of the Pioneer probes. Venus has smog-like
clouds that are not expected to generate lightning and yet the
planet suffers intense lightning. This argues against the popular
notion of what causes lightning.
It seems that when a dwarf star or gas giant planet "gives birth" to
a rocky satellite, parent and child usually remain closely bound.
Our solar system, with its widely spaced orbits and chaotic
features, appears to be the result of a recent cosmic "traffic
accident". This seemingly wild conjecture is supported by the global
stories of prehistoric planetary encounters. So to use our situation
as a measure of a normal planetary system will give wildly
misleading ideas of how life begins and estimates of the likelihood
of life elsewhere in the universe. The most benign situation for
life in an Electric Universe is inside the electrical cocoon of a
brown dwarf star. Radiant energy is then evenly distributed over the
entire surface of any planet orbiting within the chromosphere of
such a star, regardless of axial rotation, tilt, or orbital
The exceedingly thin atmosphere of such stars has the essential
water and carbon compounds to mist down onto planetary surfaces. The
reddish light is ideal for photosynthesis. Such a model provides one
reason why the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
project is unlikely to succeed. Any advanced civilization on such a
planet will be unaware that the universe exists outside its own
stellar environment, and radio communication through the glow
discharge of the star is impossible!
Our education systems are not suited to the broad interdisciplinary
knowledge required in an Electric Universe.
"The machines that are first invented to perform any particular
movement are always the most complex, and succeeding artists
generally discover that with fewer wheels, with fewer principles of
motion than had originally been employed, the same effects may be
more easily produced. The first philosophical systems, in the same
manner, are always the most complex."
- Adam Smith
The Electric Universe takes a simplifying leap by unifying the
nuclear forces, magnetism and gravity as manifestations of a near
instantaneous electrostatic force. Instead of being "spooked" by the
concept of action-at-a-distance, like most physicists this century,
the Electric Universe accepts it as an observational fact. Anyone
who has tried to force two like poles of magnets together has
demonstrated action-at-a-distance. "Electromagnetic"
then simply the result of an oscillating electrostatic force.
the level of the atom, the Electric Universe model takes a lead from
the work of Ralph Sansbury, an independent New York researcher.
Foremost is the simple recognition of the basic electrical nature of
matter and the primacy of the electrostatic force** in matter
interactions. It also rests upon the simple assumption that the
proton, neutron and electron are composed of smaller charged
particles, orbiting each other in a classical sense in stable,
resonant orbits. That is, the energy exchanged between those
sub-particles in elastic deformation during each orbit sums to zero.
Being charged, the sub-particles interact via the electrostatic
force. A simple calculation shows that the sub-particles that form
an electron must travel at a speed far in excess of the speed of
light - some 2.5 million light-years per second, or
from here to the
far side of the Andromeda galaxy in one second!
So the electrostatic
force must act at a speed which is almost infinite on our scale for
the electron to be stable. It is the stable orbital resonances of
these sub-particles, both within and between particles that give
rise to the phenomena of protons, neutrons, electrons and atoms.
Other denizens of the particle "zoo" are merely transient resonant
states of the same charged sub-particles. The so-called "creation"
of matter from energetic photons is an illusion in which
pre-existing matter is reorganized into new resonant states that
give the impression that a particle has suddenly materialized.
Antimatter is a misnomer since it too is formed from the same
sub-particles as "normal" matter except that
the total charge is
mirrored. Matter cannot be created or annihilated.
View of Forces in Physics
1. Nuclear forces keep the nucleons (protons and neutrons) together
in the atomic nucleus. They are the dominating forces in the
nucleus, but of no importance at large distances from it.
2a. Electric forces. A positive charge and negative charge attract
each other, but similar charges repel. Electric forces keep the
atoms together ("bind" the electrons to the nucleus). They are of
a certain importance in the nucleus. At large distances electric
forces are usually not so important because of a screening effect.
For example, a positive charge attracts negative charges to its
neighborhood so that they screen off the field from the positive
2b. Magnetic forces are closely related to the electric forces.
Because they cannot be screened very easily, they are efficient at
larger distances than electric forces. Example: the Earth’s magnetic
3. Gravitation is much weaker than electric forces and therefore of
no importance in the atom. As the gravitation cannot be screened, it
is the dominating force at large distances. The orbits of the
planets and the motions of stars and galaxies are ruled by
- H. Alfvén
For the first time the highly successful quantum theory gains a
physical explanation in terms of resonant motion of charged
particles, mediated by a near-instantaneous electrostatic force. A
quantum electron orbit is one in which the exchange of energy
between all of the sub-particles in the nucleus of an atom and those
in an orbiting electron, sum to zero over the orbit. Exchange of
energy takes the form of distortion of a particle to form an
electrostatic dipole or a move to a new resonant orbit.
Theory Einstein’s Special Theory was designed to define simultaneity
in a universe where the fastest force or signal was restricted to
the measured speed of detection of light from a distant source. With
an electrostatic force of near-infinite speed acting between the
sub-particles of all matter, relativity theory reduces to classical
physics. This leaves open the question of what we are measuring when
we determine the speed of light. The speed of light in galactic
terms is exceedingly slow, requiring about 150,000 years to cross
our galaxy. However, the astronomer Halton Arp has shown that the
redshifts of entire galaxies are quantized which requires some form
of near instantaneous, galaxy-wide communication at the sub-atomic
level. There are now several reported experiments that demonstrate
faster than light effects.
With the Special Theory gone, and the
universe in communication with its parts effectively in real-time,
there can be no time travel as space and time are independent.
Common sense has always suggested that this was so. Einstein’s
General Theory was devised to explain gravity. It attempts to
discard the observed action-at-a-distance of gravity by proposing a
counter-intuitive warping of space in the presence of massive
objects. This unnecessary complication of space is then added to the
current metaphysical concepts of what constitutes the mass of an
object. But space must also "warp" at near infinite speed to produce
the observed planetary orbits. Common sense, observation, and
parsimony of hypotheses all suggest that the electrostatic model of
gravity (see below) is superior. There is now experimental evidence
from gravity measurements at the time of a total solar eclipse that
supports the Electric Universe model and discounts the General
E = mc2
Einstein’s famous mathematical expression E=mc2, equating energy and
mass is known by almost everyone. However, most textbooks go on to
use the word ’matter’ in place of ’mass.’ But nowhere has it been
shown that mass and matter are interchangeable. In fact, we are
entirely ignorant of what constitutes the mass of an object. So it
is inadmissible to imply that energy and matter are interchangeable.
The ultimate expression of this idea led to the nonsense of the big
bang. It seems simpler and more sensible to suggest that both
nuclear and chemical energy is released or absorbed by the
rearrangement of the resonant orbits of charged particles. It is
then common sense to suggest that mass is the measured response of a
system of charged particles to an external electrostatic force.
more massive an object, the more the electrostatic force contributes
to the elastic deformation of its protons, neutrons and electrons,
rather than their acceleration. This is the phenomenon seen in
particle accelerators and conventionally attributed to relativistic
effects. But relativity reduces to classical physics in a universe
where the electrostatic force has near-infinite speed. The first
question to be asked is - if it is that simple, why hasn’t it been
thought of long ago? The answer seems to lie in the propensity for
mathematical theory to supersede common sense and observation. There
is also a problem of language when mathematicians attempt to provide
real meaning for their symbols.
12. So What’
The consequences and possibilities in an Electric Universe are
far-reaching. First we must acknowledge our profound ignorance!
know nothing of the origin of the universe.
There was no Big Bang.
The visible universe is static and much smaller than we thought.
have no idea of the age or extent of the universe.
We don’t know the
ultimate source of the electrical energy or matter that forms the
Galaxies are shaped by electrical forces and form plasma
focuses at their centers, which periodically eject quasars and jets
Quasars evolve into companion galaxies.
families with identifiable "parents" and "children".
electrical ’transformers’ not thermonuclear devices.
There are no
neutron stars or Black Holes.
We don’t know the age of stars because
the thermonuclear evolution theory does not apply to them.
Supernovae are totally inadequate as a source of heavy elements.
do not know the age of the Earth because radioactive clocks can be
upset by powerful electric discharges.
The powerful electric discharges that form a stellar photosphere
create the heavy elements that appear in their spectra.
birth" electrically to companion stars and gas giant planets.
is most likely to form inside the radiant plasma envelope of a brown
Our Sun has gained new planets, including the Earth.
That accounts for the ’fruit-salad’ of their characteristics. It is
not the most hospitable place for life since small changes in the
distant Sun could freeze or sterilize the Earth.
and atmospheres are deposited during their birth from a larger body
and during electrical encounters with other planets.
surfaces bear the electrical scars of such cosmic events.
of light is not a barrier.
Real-time communication over galactic
distances may be possible. Therefore time is universal and time
travel is impossible.
Anti-gravity is possible.
Space has no extra
dimensions in which to warp or where parallel universes may exist.
There is no "zero-point" vacuum energy.
The invisible energy source
in space is electrical.
Clean nuclear power is available from
resonant catalytic nuclear systems.
Higher energy is available from
resonant catalytic chemical systems than in the usual chemical
Biological enzymes are capable of utilizing resonant
nuclear catalysis to transmute elements.
Biological systems show
evidence of communicating via resonant chemical systems, which may
lend a physical explanation to the work of Rupert Sheldrake.
does not hold the key to life but is more like a blueprint for a set
of components and tools in a factory.
We may never be able to read
the human genome and tell whether it represents a creature with two
legs or six because the information that controls the assembly line
is external to the DNA.
There is more to life than chemistry.
We are not hopelessly isolated in time and space on a tiny rock,
orbiting an insignificant star in an insignificant galaxy. We are
hopefully connected with the power and intelligence of the universe.
The future in an Electric Universe looks very exciting indeed!