The Gods of Eden
THE IDEA THAT human beings are a slave race owned by an
extraterrestrial society is not a new one. It was expressed
thousands of years ago in mankind’s earliest recorded civilizations.
The first of those civilizations was Sumeria: a remarkably advanced
society which arose in the Tigris-Euphrates River valley between
5000 and 4000 B.C., and flourished as a major civilization by 3500
* Until recently, ancient Sumeria was thought to be the site of
mankind’s earliest city. Excavation has revealed a city in Jericho
(near modem-day Jerusalem) built as long ago as 7000 B.C. Almost
nothing is known about that city.
Like other ancient societies which arose in the Mesopotamian region,
Sumeria left records stating that
of extraterrestrial origin had ruled early human society as Earth’s
first monarchs. Those alien people were often thought of as “Gods.”
Some Sumerian “Gods” were said to travel into the skies and through
the heavens in flying “globes” and rocket like vehicles. Ancient
carvings depict several “Gods” wearing goggle like apparel over their
eyes. Human priests acted as mere intermediaries between the alien
“Gods” and the human population.
Not all Mesopotamian Gods were humanlike extraterrestrials. Some
were obvious fabrications, and fictitious attributes were often
ascribed to the extraterrestrial humanlike Gods. Once the blatant
fictions are stripped away, however, we discover within the
Mesopotamian pantheon a distinct class of beings who do indeed fit
the “ancientastronauts” mold.
In order for me to better discuss these “high tech” “Gods,” * it will
be necessary for me to invent a new term.
* For a detailed analysis of the apparent “high tech” nature of many
ancient Sumerian Gods, I recommend
Zecharia Sitchin’s five books,
The Twelfth Planet, The Stairway to Heaven, The Wars of Gods and
Men, The Lost Realms, and Genesis Visited.
The word “God" alone contains too much undeserved awe. Historical
and modern-day testimony indicates that these ”Gods” are as “human”
in their behavior as you or I.
The term “ancient astronaut” pigeonholes them into the distant past
when, in fact, they appear to have maintained a continuous presence
all the way up until today.
The label “extraterrestrial” is too broad.
I cannot name the “Gods” after any star or planet from which they
might hail because I will not speculate as to their place of origin.
Furthermore, it is conceivable that the alleged ownership of Earth
may have changed hands over the millennia, in the same way that
ownership of a corporation can pass among different owners without
the public being aware of it.
That leaves me to invent a new label based upon the “Gods’ “
apparent relationship to the human race. For lack of anything
better, I will simply refer to them as
the “Custodial” society,
meaning that specific extraterrestrial society (or succession of
societies) which appears to have had ownership and custody of the
Earth since prehistory. For brevity, I will often refer to them
simply as “Custodians.”
What sort of creatures are these newly-labeled “Custodians”?
Historical records and modern testimony describe them as physically
humanlike, racially diverse, and, most importantly, very similar to
human beings behaviorally. For example, some modern-era UFOs have
exhibited adolescent prankishness by racing at airplanes as though
they were going to collide, and then abruptly veering away just as
impact seemed imminent: an apparent game of aerial “chicken.” At
least one modern witness has allegedly been “zapped” by a UFO for
no other apparent reason than malice. Ancient writers describe their
extraterrestrial “Gods” as being capable of love, hate, amusement,
anger, honesty, and depravity. Ancient records and modern testimony
alike would indicate that Custodial personalities run the entire
gamut from saints to sinners, from the most degraded of despots to
the most true-hearted of humanitarians. Sadly, it is the brutal and
despotic element of their society that would appear to be the most
influential in the affairs of Earth, as we shall document.
The ancient Mesopotamian civilizations recorded a great deal of their
history on clay tablets. Only a fraction of those tablets have
survived, yet they manage to tell a remarkable story about the
Custodial “Gods” and their relationship to
According to the history inscribed on Mesopotamian tablets, there
was a time when human beings did not exist at all. Instead, Earth was
inhabited by members of the Custodial civilization. Custodial life
on Earth was not pleasant, however. Custodial efforts to exploit the
rich mineral and natural resources of Earth proved backbreaking.
one tablet tells us:
When the Gods like men
Bore the work and suffered the toil—
The toil of the Gods was great,
The work was heavy, the distress was muck—I
The tablets described lives of endless drudgery as the “Gods”
carried out building, excavation, and mining operations on Earth.
The “Gods” were not at all happy with their lot. They were prone to
complaining, backstabbing, and rebellion against their leaders. A
solution was needed, and it was found: to create a new creature
capable of performing the same labors on Earth as the Custodians.
With this purpose in mind, the Custodial “Gods” created Homo sapiens
Mesopotamian tablets tell a creation story in which a “God” is put
to death by other “Gods,” and the body and blood are then mixed into
clay. Out of this concoction a human being is made. The new Earth
creature is very similar in appearance to its Custodial creators.
In his book,
The Twelfth Planet, author
exhaustively analyzes the Sumerian creation stories. He concludes
that the tale of a God’s body being mixed with clay may have referred
to biological engineering. Mr. Sitchin supports his surprising
conclusion by pointing to those Sumerian tablets which state that the
first humans were bred in the wombs of female Custodial “Gods.”
According to the tablets, Custodians had male and female bodies, and
they bred by sexual intercourse. In fact, ancient Mesopotamians stated
that they provided ruling Custodial “Gods” with human prostitutes.
Mr. Sitchin believes that the “clay” was a special substance that
could be inserted into a Custodial womb. That substance held the
genetically-engineered cells of the new slave creature, Homo sapiens.
Humans could apparently be bred in that fashion because they were
physically very similar to Custodians. Interestingly, modern
scientists have bred animals in a similar fashion, such as a zebra
in the womb of a horse.
Ancient Mesopotamian tablets credit one “God” in particular with
supervising the genetic manufacture of Homo sapiens. That “God’s”
name was Ea. Ea was reported to be
the son of a Custodial king who was said to rule another planet
within the far flung Custodial empire. Prince Ea was known by the
title, “EN.KI,” which means “lord [or prince] of Earth.” Ancient
Sumerian texts reveal that Ea’s title was not entirely accurate
because Ea was said to have lost his dominion over major portions of
Earth to his half brother, Enlil, during one of the innumerable
rivalries and intrigues that seemed to forever preoccupy Custodial
In addition to engineering Homo sapiens, Prince Ea is given credit
in Mesopotamian tablets for many other accomplishments. If he was a
real person, then Ea could best be described as a scientist and
civil engineer of considerable talent. He is said to have drained
marshes by the Persian Gulf and to have replaced them with fertile
agricultural land. He supervised the construction of dams and dikes.
Ea loved sailing and he built ships in which to navigate the seas.
When it came time to create Homo sapiens, Ea demonstrated a good
grasp of genetic engineering, but not, according to the tablets,
without trial and error. Most importantly, Ea was described as
goodhearted, at least in regard to his creation, Homo sapiens.
Mesopotamian texts portray Ea as an advocate who spoke before
Custodial councils on behalf of the new Earth race. He opposed many
of the cruelties that other Custodial rulers, including his
half-brother, Enlil, inflicted upon human beings. It would appear
from Sumerian tablets that Ea did not intend Homo sapiens to be
harshly treated, but his wishes in that regard were overruled by
other Custodial leaders.
As we have just seen, our ancient and highly civilized ancestors told
a very different story of humanity’s emergence on Earth than we
tell today. The Mesopotamians were clearly not schooled in Darwinian
theories of evolution! Nevertheless, there is some surprising
anthropological evidence to support the Sumerian version of
According to modern-day analyses of the fossil record, Homo sapiens
emerged as a distinct animal species somewhere between 300,000 B.C.
and 700,000 B.C. As time progressed, a number of subspecies of Homo
emerged, including that subspecies to which all human beings belong
today: Homo sapiens sapiens.
Homo sapiens sapiens appeared a mere
30,000 years ago—some say only10,000 to 20,000 years ago. This
raises an important question: were the Sumerians referring to Homo
sapiens or Homo sapiens sapiens in their creation stories? There
seems to be no firm answer. Excellent arguments have been made
that they were referring to original Homo sapiens. I tend to favor
the argument that they were probably referring to modern Homo sapiens
sapiens, for the following reasons:
1 The oldest surviving creation stories were written circa 4000-5000
B.C. It is more likely that a true record of mankind’s creation would
survive 5000 to 25,000 years than it would survive 295,000 years or
2 If the Sumerians were describing the
creation of Homo sapiens
sapiens, later events described in Mesopotamian tablets fall within
a more plausible time frame.
3 The Mesopotamians themselves were members of the subspecies Homo
sapiens sapiens. They were primarily concerned with how they
themselves had come into existence. In their various works, ancient
Sumerians depicted hairy animal-like men who appear to be a more
primitive subspecies of Homo sapiens. The Sumerians clearly viewed
those primitive men as an entirely different race of creature.
If the Mesopotamian creation stories are based upon actual events,
and if those stories refer to the creation of Homo sapiens sapiens,
we would expect Homo sapiens sapiens to appear very suddenly in
history. Remarkably, that is precisely what happened. The
anthropological record reveals that Homo sapiens sapiens appeared
on Earth abruptly, not gradually. F. Clark Howell and T. D. White
of the University of California at Berkeley had this to say:
These people [Homo sapiens sapiens] and their initial material
culture appear with seeming suddenness just over 30,000 years ago,
probably earlier in eastern than in western Europe.2
The mystery of this abrupt appearance is deepened by another puzzle:
why did the more primitive Neanderthal man (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) suddenly vanish at the same time that modern Homo
sapiens sapiens appeared? Evolution is not that fast. Messrs. Howell
and White pondered this question and concluded:
. . . the utter, almost abrupt disappearance of Neanderthal people remains one of the enigmas and critical
problems in studies of human evolution.3
The Encyclopedia Britannica concurs:
The factors responsible for the
disappearance of the
Neanderthal peoples are an important problem to which
there is unfortunately still no clear solution.4
The Sumerian creation stories do offer a clear solution to the
riddle, but it is one that many people would have a difficult time
accepting: the sudden appearance of Homo sapiens sapiens,
accompanied by the abrupt disappearance of Neanderthal man, was
caused by intelligent intervention. It might be conjectured that
Neanderthal man was either exterminated or hauled off the Earth to
make room for the new slave race, and perhaps to prevent
breeding between the two subspecies. Whatever the precise truth of
this might be, we do know two facts with certainty: modern
anthropology has discovered a sudden replacement of Neanderthal man
with modern man, and Mesopotamian records state that intelligent
planning by an extraterrestrial race lay somewhere behind that
In Chapter 2, we discussed the fact that humans appear to be
spiritual beings animating physical bodies. The spirit seems to be
the true source of awareness, personality, and intelligence. Without
a spiritual entity to animate it, a human body would be little more
than a reactive animal, or dead. The people of ancient Mesopotamia
thoroughly understood this critical fact when they mentioned a
spiritual being in connection with the creation of Homo sapiens:
You have slaughtered a God together with his personality [spiritual
being] I have removed your heavy work, I have imposed your toil on
Custodial rulers knew that they needed to keep spiritual beings
permanently attached to human bodies in order to animate those bodies
and make them intelligent enough to perform their labors:
In the clay God [a spiritual entity] and Man [physical body of Homo
sapiens] shall be bound, to a unity brought together; So that to the
end of days the Flesh and the Soul which in a God have ripened— that
Soul in a blood-kinship be bound. 6
The tablets are silent about which “personalities” were chosen to
animate the new slave bodies. Based upon how things are done in
human society, we might guess that
the Custodial society used
criminals, deviates, prisoners of war, detested social and racial
groups, nonconformists, and other undesirables to obtain the
spiritual beings it needed to animate the new slave race of Earth.
Humans were certainly treated like convicts sentenced to hard labor:
With picks and spades they [human beings] built the
They built the big canal banks.
For food for the peoples,
for the sustenance of [the Gods]. 7
As beasts of burden, humans were brutally treated by
their extraterrestrial masters. The clay tablets tell of vast and
catastrophic cruelty perpetrated by the Custodians against their
human servants. Cold-blooded population control measures were carried
Twelve hundred years had not yet passed When the land extended and
the peoples multiplied. The land was bellowing like a bull,
got disturbed with their uproar. Enlil [half-brother and rival of Ea]
And addressed the great Gods, “The noise of
mankind has become
too intense for
With their uproar I am deprived of sleep. Cut off supplies for
the peoples, Let there be a scarcity of plant-life to satisfy their
Adad [another Custodian] should withhold his rain,
the flood [the regular flooding of the
land which made it fertile] should not come up from
Let the wind blow and parch the ground, Let the clouds
thicken but not release a downpour, Let the fields diminish their
There must be no rejoicing among them.” *
* These lines suggest that Enlil had lived more than 1200 years. A
similar longevity is attributed to Ea and other Custodial rulers.
Many people find it difficult to believe that any creature,
including an extraterrestrial, could live that long.
The surprising longevity attributed to Custodial rulers may perhaps
be explained by Sumerian spiritual beliefs. The Sumerians believed
that a “personality” (spiritual being) survives the death of a
physical body and that it is possible to identify the “personality”
after it has abandoned one body and taken on a new one (in the same
way that one can identify a driver who jumps out of one automobile
and climbs into another).
A “personality” could therefore hold the
same political or social position body after body, as long as the
“personality” could be identified. When Sumerians gave Custodians an
extensive longevity, they were not necessarily suggesting that a
single Custodial body survived for centuries; in many cases they
appear to have been saying that a Custodial “personality” held a
political position for a very long time even though it may have done
so through a succession of bodies.
An Assyrian tablet adds:
“Command that there be a plague, Let
Namtar diminish their noise. Let disease,
sickness, plague and pestilence Blow upon
them like a tornado.” They commanded and
there was plague Namtar diminished their
noise. Disease, sickness, plague and
pestilence Blew upon them like a tornado.9
The tablets describe ghastly conditions in which
food supplies were
cut off, in which diseases were laid upon the people that constricted
wombs and prevented childbirth, and in which starvation became so
rampant that human beings were forced to resort to cannibalism.
Lesser diseases, such as one resembling influenza, were also visited
upon Homo sapiens, suggesting that the Custodial “Gods” understood
and engaged in biological warfare.
When this genocide did not produce a sufficient drop in the human
population, the Custodians resumed it. Eventually, a decision was
made to destroy the human race entirely with a great flood.
Many archaeologists today believe that there was a cataclysmic
flood in the Near East thousands of years ago. One description of
the “Great Flood” is found in the Babylonian ”Epic of Gilgamesh,”
which predates the Bible.
According to the Epic, a Babylonian named Utnapishtim was approached
by Prince Ea, who opposed the decision to destroy his creation, Homo
sapiens. Ea told Utnapishtim that the other “Gods” planned to cause
a deluge to wipe out the human race. Ea, who is described in other
writings as a master shipbuilder and sailor, gave Utnapishtim
instructions on how to build a boat which could survive the flood.
Utnapishtim followed Ea’s directions and, with the help of friends,
completed the vessel before the flooding began. Utnapishtim then
loaded the boat with his gold, family, and livestock, along with
craftsmen and wild animals, and hoisted off to sea.
Babylonian and Assyrian tablets relate that just prior to flooding
the land, the Custodians scorched it with flame. Then they flooded
the region by causing a long rainstorm and by breaking the intricate
system of dams and dikes that had been built in Mesopotamia to
control the erratic flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
The Gilgamesh Epic relates that Utnapishtim and his crew survived the
ordeal. When it was over, they sought out dry land by releasing a
series of three birds; if a bird did not return to the boat,
Utnapishtim would know that it had found dry land nearby on which to
Once back on solid ground, Utnapishtim was joined by several
Custodians returning from out of the sky. Instead of destroying the
survivors, a degree of leniency prevailed and the Custodians
transported the surviving humans to another region to live.
The tale of Utnapishtim should ring a bell with anyone who is
familiar with the Biblical story of Noah and the Ark. That is because
the tale of Noah, lace many other stories in the Old Testament, is
taken from older Mesopotamian writings. Biblical authors simply
altered names and changed the many “Gods” of the original writings
into the one “God” or “Lord” of the Hebrew religion. The latter
change was an unfortunate one because it caused a Supreme Being
to be blamed for the brutal acts that earner writers had attributed
to the very God-like Custodians.
Early Mesopotamian writings gave us another famous Old Testament
story: the tale of Adam and Eve. The Adam and Eve narrative is also
derived from earlier Mesopotamian sources which described life under
the Custodial “Gods.”
The “God" or “Lord God" of the Bible’s Adam
and Eve story can therefore be translated to mean the
Custodial rulers of Earth. The story of Adam and Eve is unique in
that it is entirely symbolic, and through its symbols it provides an
intriguing account of early human history.
According to the Bible, Adam, who symbolizes first man, was created
by “God" from the “dust of the ground.” This idea reflects the older
Mesopotamian belief that Homo sapiens was created partially from
“clay.” Adam’s wife, Eve, was also created artificially. They both
lived in an
abundant paradise known as the Garden of Eden. Modern versions of
the Bible place the Garden of Eden in the Tigris-Euphrates region of
The Old Testament tells us that Adam (first man) was designed to be
a servant. His function was to till the soil and to care for the
lush gardens and crops owned by his “God.” As long as Adam and Eve
accepted their servant status and obeyed their ever-present
masters, all of their physical needs would be met and they would be
permitted to remain in their “paradise” indefinitely. There was,
however, one unpardonable sin that they must never commit. They must
never attempt to seek certain types of knowledge. Those forbidden
forms of knowledge are symbolized in the story as two trees: the
“tree of knowledge of good and evil” and the “tree of life.” The
first “tree” symbolizes an understanding of ethics and justice. The
second “tree” symbolizes the knowledge of how to regain and retain
one’s spiritual identity and immortality.
Adam and Eve obeyed the commandments of their masters and lived in
material bliss until another party entered the scene. The
intervening party was symbolized in the story as a snake. The
serpent convinced Eve to partake of the “fruit” * from the “tree of
knowledge of good and evil.” Eve followed the serpent’s suggestion,
as did Adam. “God" (i.e., Custodial leadership) became immediately
And the Lord’ God said. Look, the man has become as one of us,
knowing good from evil: and now, what if he puts forth his hand, and
takes also of the tree of life, and eats, and lives forever?
* This fruit is usually portrayed as an apple, but that is the
invention of later artists. The Bible itself does not mention a
specific fruit because the “fruit” was only a symbol to represent
The above passage reveals an important truth echoed by many
religions. A true understanding of ethics, integrity,
and justice is a prerequisite to regaining one’s spiritual freedom
and immortality. Without a foundation in ethics, full spiritual
recovery becomes nothing more than a pipe dream.
The Custodians clearly did not want mankind to begin traveling the
road to spiritual recovery. The reason is obvious. The Custodial
society wanted slaves. It is difficult to make thralls of people who
maintain their integrity and sense of ethics. It becomes impossible
when those same individuals are uncowed by physical threats due to
a reawakened grasp of their spiritual immortality. Most importantly,
if spiritual beings could no longer be trapped in human bodies, but
could instead use and abandon bodies at will, there would be no
spiritual beings available to animate slave bodies.
As I we recall,
Sumerian tablets revealed a Custodial intention to permanently
attach spiritual beings to human bodies. Early man’s attempt to
escape this spiritual bondage by “eating” from the Biblical “trees”
therefore had to be stopped...and fast!
Therefore the Lord God sent him [Adam] forth from
the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he
had been taken.
So he drove out the man; and he placed at the
east of the garden of Eden cherubim [angels], and a
flaming sword which turned every way, to shield the
way [prevent access] to the tree of life.
The “flaming sword” symbolizes the no-nonsense measures that the
Custodians undertook to ensure that genuine spiritual knowledge would
never become available to the human race.
To further prevent access to such knowledge, Homo sapiens was
condemned to an additional fate:
And to Adam, he [God] said,
Because you have listened to the urgings of
and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not
You shall not partake of it: cursed is the ground for
toil will you eat its yield for all the days of your life:
Thorns, too, and thistles will it bring forth to you;
as you eat the plants from the field: By the sweat of
your face will you eat bread, until
you return to the ground; for out of it were you taken:
for dust you are and to dust will you return.
This was a highly effective way to deal with Adam’s and Eve’s
“original sin.” The above passage indicates that Custodial rulers
intended to make humans live their entire lives and die without ever
rising above the level of arduous material existence. That would
leave humans little time to seek out the understanding they needed
to become spiritually free.
A common misinterpretation of the Adam and Eve story is that the
“original sin” had something to do with sex or nudity. This
confusion comes from that part of the story in which Adam and Eve
eat from the “tree of knowledge of good and evil” and immediately
become ashamed of their nakedness. It was not nudity, however, that
shamed them. Adam and Eve were mortified by what their nakedness
represented. Ancient Mesopotamian records depict human beings
stark naked when performing tasks for their Custodial masters.
Custodians, on the other hand, were depicted as being fully
clothed. The implication is that Adam and Eve felt degraded by their
nakedness because it was a sign of their enslavement—not because
being naked in itself is bad.
As we have seen, early humans were reported to be a constant
headache to their Custodial masters. The slave creatures not only
disobeyed their rulers, they often banded together and rebelled.
This made human unity undesirable to Earth’s Custodial rulers—it was
better that humans be disunited. One of the ways in which the
problem of human unity was solved is described in the Biblical story
of the Tower of Babel—a tale which also has its roots in early
According to the Bible, this is what happened after the Great Flood:
And the whole earth spoke one language, and used the same words.
And it came to pass, as they migrated from the east, that they found
a plain in the land of Sh’nar [Babylonia: a region in Mesopotamia]
and settled there.
And they said, Come on, let us build ourselves a city and a tower,
whose top will reach the skies; and let us make a name for
ourselves, otherwise we will be scattered all over the face of the
And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the men
And the Lord said, Look, the people are united, and they have all one
language; and this they begin to do; and now nothing will stop them
from doing what they take in their minds to do.
Come on, let us go down, and there confuse their language so that
they cannot understand one another’s speech.
So the Lord scattered them abroad from there all over the face of
the earth: and they stopped building the city.
Therefore the name of it is called Babel: because the Lord did there
confuse the language of the entire earth: and from there did the Lord
scatter them abroad over the face of the whole Earth.
In The Twelfth Planet, Mr. Sitchin offers an
intriguing analysis of
the Tower of Babel story. According to his research, the word “name”
in the above passage (“let us make a name for ourselves”) was a
translation of the ancient word shem. The Bible’s translation of
may be in error, says Mr. Sitchin, because shem comes from the root
word shamah, which means “that which is highward.” Ancient shems are
the obelisk monuments that were so prevalent in many ancient
societies. Those shems, or obelisks, were copied after the
rocket-shaped vehicles in which the Custodial “Gods” were said to
fly. Mr. Sitchin therefore believes
that the word shem in Mesopotamian texts should be translated to
“sky vehicle,” meaning rocketship.
When this translation is placed
into the above Biblical passage, we find that the ancient
Babylonians were not trying to make a name (i.e., reputation) for
themselves; they were trying to make a “sky vehicle” or rocket! The
implication is that they wanted to match the technological might of
their hated Custodial masters and thereby put an end to their
enslavement. The tower itself may have been intended as the launching
pad for a human shem.
If Mr. Sitchin’s provocative analysis is accurate, we would better
understand why the Custodial entities became so alarmed by the Tower
of Babel and felt such a compelling need to thoroughly disunite the
Ancient stories and legends from other parts of the world indirectly
support the Tower of Babel story. The Japanese people, Alaskan
Eskimos, South Americans, and Egyptian shall have traditions stating
that their earliest forefathers had either been transported by
humanlike “Gods” to where the modern descendants live today, or that
those “Gods” had been the source of the local languages or writing.
It may be difficult to accept Mesopotamian and Biblical statements
that ancient human society had been split apart thousands of years
ago in a “divide and conquer” effort by flying extraterrestrials,
even though the “divide and conquer” technique is frequently used by
military and political leaders on Earth during wartime.
Interestingly, using the technique was advocated a number of years
ago by a distinguished Yale professor if Earth should ever
colonize other planets. The good professor suggested that Earth could
control another inhabited planet by pitting one native group against
If we compare ancient and modern ideas about how mankind came into
existence, we find two very different versions. The ancient version
is that an extraterrestrial society had come to possess Earth and
sought to exploit the planet’s resources. To make the exploitation
easier, a work race was created: Homo sapiens. Humans were treated
as livestock and were frequently butchered when they became too
numerous or troublesome. To preserve Homo sapiens as a slave race
and to prevent future rebellion, spiritual knowledge was repressed,
human beings were scattered geographically into different linguistic
groups, and conditions were created to make physical survival on
Earth an all-consuming chore from birth until death.
arrangement was to be maintained indefinitely for as long as the
Custodial society possessed Earth. In contrast, the modern view is
that human beings had evolved accidentally from “star stuff” into
slime, into fishes, into monkeys, and finally into people. The
modern view actually seems more fanciful than the ancient one.
the story of Adam and Eve we noted the appearance of a snake. The
serpent was said to be “God’s” enemy, Satan, who had literally
transformed himself into a reptile. The Bible suggests that snakes
are feared and disliked today because of Satan’s alleged
transformation back in the Garden of Eden. However, it should be
remembered that the Biblical Adam and Eve story is entirely
symbolic. The snake, too, was a symbol, not an actual reptile.
To determine what the Biblical snake represented, we
must go back once again to older pre-Biblical sources.
When we do so, we discover that the snake symbol had
two very important meanings in the ancient world: it was
associated with the Custodial “God” Ea, reputed creator and
benefactor of mankind, and it also represented an influential
organization with which Ea was associated.
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