The chapter dealing with ‘Darpanaas’ or ‘Mirrors’ in the text ‘Vymanika Shastra’ is particularly significant. The term mirror has been referred to in a very generic sense. It is observed during the study of this topic that they are reflectors, deflectors, absorbers, radiators, augmenters of light and energy beams and so on.

The guiding text is ‘Mukura kalpa’, the author being Lallacharya. Seven such darpanas narrated are:

  • Viswakriya darpana -- Television aid

  • Shaktyaakarshana darpana -- Power capturing mirror

  • Vyroopya darpana -- Appearance changing mirror

  • {Kuntinee darpana, Pinjula darpana

  • Guhagarbhadarpana,Roudreedarpana } -- Energy related

Study of later part of the work shows that these darpanas are parts of system -specific on board contrivances grouped under ‘Yantraas’. The object of treating them exclusively under darpanas is obvious. They form the core components of yantraas. In fact we notice that many Yantras have derived names from the mirrors incorporated in them.

1) Vishwa kriyaa darpana:

Provided as a visual display for the pilot in his cabin [cockpit], providing high resolution live picture relay of activities all round the vimana and hence called ‘Vishwa kriya darpana’. Kriyaasaara is the text of reference.


Some of the researchers have interpreted as activities going on all over the world, possibly based on usage of the term Viswakriya.


Satva (2), Shundilaka (2), Eagle bone (1), Mercury (5), Foot nails of Sinchoranee (2), Mica (6), Red lead (5), Pearl dust (5), Eye balls of Sowmyaka fish (15), Burning coal (1), Snakes slough (8), Eye Pigment (3), Granite sand (10), Salts (8), Lead (4), Sea foam (2), White throated eagles skin (3), Five parts of Vyrajya or Keg tree bark.

A finely mixed powder of the ingredients in beaked crucible ® Chandodara furnace® 800° heat® Melt to be poured in to mould.

Observations: Ingredients are organic and inorganic substances including animal, birds, reptiles, oceanic and botanical origin.

--Hypersensitive optical properties of eagle, fish and pearls are well known.

--Display to the pilot is a useful Pre-flight and In-flight information to decide suitable course of action and may even relay the activities in the environ to the vimanas trailing. Notice the usefulness in reconnaissance and surveillance roles.

More of this during discussion on the main yantra later.

2. Shaktyakarshana darpana:

Shaktyaakarshana yantra derives its name from its prime component Shktya karshana darpana.

--Use of this drapana is to counter the dangerous elements of energy due to solar ray, ethereal wind and heat in specified layers of atmospheric zone. The mirror enables in subduing or neutralizing the effects of this energy and protects the vimana.

--Dhundinatha and Paraankusha have discussed such dangerous energy sources.


Haritaala (5), Virinchi (5), Salts (8), Gingelly husk (4), Diamond (6), Red mica (1), Burning coal (8), Sand (3), Tortoise egg (2), Bhaarami (3), Kanda (3), Powshkala (5), Coral (5) Pearl (2), sea shell (6), Borax (8), Shankha (5), Bengal Quince Seed (3).

Powdered and mixed ® in swan crucible ® heated in Mandooka furnace ® Boiled to 500 degree and poured in to vistrita mirror.


A flight safety device against harmful atmospheric effects.

3. Vyroopya darpana:

Recalling the concept of Vyroopya under special features dealt with earlier and later covered as a yantra under relevant chapter, vyroopya darpana is discussed here.

--To project a distorted or changed appearance of vimana, this mirror is made use of. It is a magical reflector intended to project / relay illusory shapes primarily to produce scary decoy images or animations, confusing the attacking pilots.


Bone salt (5), Zinc (3), Lac (3), Iron (8), Shashabola (3), Raajakuraantika (2), Charcoal Ashes (8), Borax (3), Rakshaa (8), Sand (7), Liquorice oil (25), Maturna (6), Suncrystal (2), Kravyaada (3), Garada (8), Pistha (3), Arshogna Root, Varaaha Pitha (3), Ammonium Chloride (3).

Mix in crucible ® Boil to 800 degree in furnace ® Pour into Darpanasara yantra

4. Kuntineee mirror:

To counter poisonous and evil atmospheric effects that derange the minds of the pilots, this mirror is provided as a safety gadget.


Saurastra earth (5), Snakes slough (7), Sea foam (3), Shanmukha seeds (5), Zinc (8), Rhinoceros nails (3), Salts (8), Sand (7), Conch (4), Mercury (4), Yellow orpiment (4), Suranghrika (7), Gingely oil (5), Pearl shells (8), Sea shells (3), Camphor (4).

Purify in Shinjhika crucible ® heat in Shinjheera furnace at 700-degree ® produces morning-sun like kuntinee mirror.

5. Pinjula Mirror:

In simple terms pinjula has been defined as conflicting interaction of solar rays. Quoting ‘Anshu Bodhinee’ propounded by Maharshi Bharadwaja, resultant force from interacting forces of solar energy, winds, heat (having different intensities from different directions), cause harmful effects on the eyeballs of flying crew. They are Andha, Andha kaara, Pinjoosha, Taarapa. These effects lead to blindness.

--Essentially conceived as a protective device for the pilots.


Goat’s milk (6), Red lead (5), Salts (8), Sand (7), Tree gum (5), Copper (2), Lead (2), Surolika essence (4), Twak (8), Vaardhyushika (3), Kanda (3), Pistha or Gingelly husk (4), Orpiment (3), Timevellesema (3), Vrikodaree seed (4).

Purified, powdered, mixed, placed in crucible® heated in furnace to 700 degree ® poured in to mould.

6. Guha garbha darpana:

Harnessing harmful energy of electricity from clouds, winds, rays and directing them against the enemy planes to disable, incapacitate them to fight.


Using harmful energies available from the environment as a weapon against enemy forces-Distinctly a biological-weapon.

--Guide quoted is ‘Prapancha saara’ and ‘Sanmohana-kriyaa-kaanda.
--Preceptors quoted- Vashistha, Lalla.


Cowries (7), Manjula or Madder root (3), Sea foam (3), Ranjaka (8), Mandoora or Rust (6), Mercury (8), Orpiment’s (3), Matrumna (6), Mridani garbha essence (5), Sphatika (5), Industatwa (15), Sand (8), Kishora (6), Brahmika (7), Lead (2), Eye Pigment (6), Muchukunda (5), Gingely oil (2), Lohika (25), Sowrastra earth (8), Bones (3), Dambholi stava (5).

Purify the mix, powder, place in crucible ® melt up to 700 degree ® cooled, results in Guha garbha Darpana.

7. Rowdree Darpana:

Mixing of rays of Rowdree beam and solar rays and projecting the resultant energy on enemy planes as a lethal weapon. The resultant energy appears to possess a high heat content and therefore melts everything it is projected upon.

Paraankusha and ‘Sanmohana Kriya Saara’ are the guiding references.


Lead (8), Shalmali (3), Durvaa (7), Kudupinjara (8), Dronee (21), Sun crystal (8), Rudraanee Graavoshara (27), Betel leaves (6), Kowtila (8), Veeraabhra Linga (36), Salts (8), Sand (7), Matrumna (6), Dimbhika (3), Zinc (8), Ant hill earth (3), Gum (6), Kumbhinee (3), Sweta oil (3), Timmnevelli sema (27), Goodhaamla (6), Silk cotton (8), Virinchi Satva (8), Kada (5), Yellow Orpiment (3), Kaarmusha (7).

Purified, mixed, placed in crucible ® melted up to 800 degree ® yields Rowdree Darpana.

Summary of observations on mirrors:

  • On an average there are 20 ingredients in making of each mirror and 75% of these components are common factors, proportions being different.

  • Specific-to-type and unusual ingredients are Rhinoceros nails, Eyeballs of fish, Snake’s slough, Eagle’s skin, Eye pigments, which may be imparting particular properties. They are also of natural origin and were perhaps available in abundance from natural sources.

  • Characteristics or properties appear to be derived from strange and remote substances.

  • Most of the strange ingredients listed have something to do with optics.

  • Ayurveda and ancient chemistry need to be consulted in a big way to decode some of the materials.

  • Similar coded materials mentioned in the preparation of ‘Prakaasha sthambhana bhida’ have been successfully deciphered through suitable analyses and interpretation at National Metallurgical laboratory, Jamshedpur. (A copy of their report is appended as appendix - E).

Go Back