This topic deals with power (forces) related to functioning of vimana in its flight and other operative modes to achieve the desired effects of motion. The manner in which different sages have viewed this aspect makes it thought–provoking.

Yantra-Sarvaswa’ of which ‘Vymanika Shastra’ is a derivative, groups the power into seven categories. Each of them vis-à-vis actuating forces are stated as follows.

  • TUNDILA                       -- UDGAMA SHAKTI

  • PANJARA                     -- PANJARA SHAKTI






Shounaka sootra is in agreement with the classification of forces as seven. Another guide ‘soudaamini kala’ featuring in ‘Anshu bodini’ is also in tandem with this manner of grouping though based on a different theory.

‘Kriyaa-saara’ goes further in explaining these forces more understandably as follows.

  • Ascent of vimana : Udgamashakthi

  • Descent of vimana : Panjara shakti

  • Solar heat absorption : by Shaktyaapa-karshini

  • Alien force restraining : Parashakti

  • Spectacular motion of the vimana : By Vidyutdwadashaka Shakti

All the above are stated to be basically from the primary force of the vimana. The twelve activities involved in performing spectacular motions have been separately mentioned as follows.

  • Proceeding : Shuddering

  • Mounting : Descending

  • Circulating : Speeding

  • Circumbulating : Sideways motion

  • Receding : Anti-clockwise motion

  • Motionless : performing miscellaneous motions

In yet another classification sage Narayana classifies the forces as just five and attributes the forces generated to perform all activities to the power derived from “Sadyojaata yantra”.

Another work ‘sphotayana’ hold the view that spectacular motions are achieved by Chittinee Shakti. The guide Kriyaa-saara is also in support of this theory. Other guides Shaktibeeja and Shaktikoustuba are firm that Panjara Shakti generated by Sadyojaata yantra performs all motions and all other forces are incidental to it.

Amidst numerous views of several sages and texts stated above Maharshi Bharadwaja analyses and emphatically rules that only seven forces are relevant and distinct, all others are corollaries of these seven forces. Essentially Panjara Shakti is the primary motive force.

Observations and discussions:

  • Sages and texts quoted have some diverse views. This is possibly due to the type of flying machines they had conceived. They seem to have differentiated forces depending on how resolution of force components were done.

  • Ex.: Force required for Udgama ie., take off on vertical mode will be one, where as if it is on normal roller take off, the forces can be resolved in to vertical components and horizontally forward components- Hence it becomes two distinct forces.

  • Forces required for aerobatic maneuvers have been conceived. An indication that Vimana with capability for combat maneuvers have been referred to.

  • It becomes necessary to understand what type of flying machines are kept in view to arrive at controlling forces required. As we see in modern Flying machines, Conventional aeroplane, Rotary wing machines, Vertical take-off and Landing machines, Hover Craft etc., all have different principles of operation. For example, a VTOL aircraft and conventional aircraft are different, a helicopter is different from a conventional aircraft. Achieving zero forward velocity is possible in a VTOL aircraft and helicopter and is not possible in a conventional aircraft. Sideways movement is possible in helicopter and the same is not possible in a conventional fixed wing aircraft. Similarly a glider is distinctly different from other powered aircraft.

  • It is interesting to see that Rolling, Yawing, Banking, Spinning, Accelerating, Zero-velocity principles are under mention.

  • Another way of understanding this is with a comparison with modern aeroplane. The engines, though meant for propulsion, generate a number of power sources that are driven by it, eg. Generator to produce captive power, hydraulic and pneumatic pumps for controls of various services, pumps to generate fluid pressure and the like. In such an arrangement these accessories driven by the engine can themselves be viewed as sources of power.

  • Later in the text under the topic Yantradhikarana there are references that each system had its own source of power drawn from Panjara shakti.

  • Sadyojaata’ as a form of power has been introduced briefly by Sri M.K. Kawadkar in his article on atmosphere.

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