In this chapter on classification of vimanas as per different Yugas and Yugadharma, the text explains the types of vimanas and their names featuring in the yugas. In Krita-yuga, people by their own powers acquired through righteous living could fly on their own volition from place to place without the aid of flying machine.

  • In Threthayuga flying machines were of Mantrika category.

  • In Dwaparayuga flying machines under classification Tantrika were used.

  • In Kaliyuga, flying machines of Kritaka category were specified.

Prominent works referred to in Yuga-wise classification are as follows:

  • Vimana Chandrika

  • Vyomayaana Tantra

  • Yantra Kalpa

  • Kheta-yaana-pradeepika

  • Vyomayaana-arkaprakashika


  • Yuga-wise classification needs deeper study.

  • Many texts seem to have existed covering vimanas; their authors however are not mentioned.

  • The next sootra deals with the names of vimanas as classified yuga-wise:

    • Tretha-yuga – Mantrika type – 25 varieties of flying machines starting from Pushpaka.

    • Dwapara-yuga – Tantrika type – 56 varieties starting from Bhyravi.

    • Kali-yuga – Kritaka type – 25 varieties starting from Shakuna.


  • Besides Maharshi Bharadwaja the other preceptors detailing the classification are Shounaka, Goutama, Manibhadra and Lallacharya.


  • The large number of vimanas hints at conception of application-specific varieties.

  • It is significant to note that ‘Tripura’ vimana covered in the text is distinctly missing from the Kritaka variety.

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